Lua Modding API Reference

This is lua_api.txt nicely formated: I did not write this

This page was last updated 29/March/2018.
See doc/lua_api.txt for the latest version (in plaintext).
Generated using a Python script.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Content and functionality can be added to Minetest using Lua scripting in run-time loaded mods.

A mod is a self-contained bunch of scripts, textures and other related things, which is loaded by and interfaces with Minetest.

Mods are contained and ran solely on the server side. Definitions and media files are automatically transferred to the client.

If you see a deficiency in the API, feel free to attempt to add the functionality in the engine and API, and to document it here.

This page was last updated 29/March/2018.
See doc/lua_api.txt for the latest version (in plaintext).
Generated using a Python script.

Programming in Lua

If you have any difficulty in understanding this, please read Programming in Lua.

Startup

Mods are loaded during server startup from the mod load paths by running the init.lua scripts in a shared environment.

Paths

  • #RUN_IN_PLACE=1 (Windows release, local build)
    • #$path_user:
      • #Linux: <build directory>
      • #Windows: <build directory>
    • #$path_share
      • #Linux: <build directory>
      • #Windows: <build directory>
  • #RUN_IN_PLACE=0: (Linux release)
    • #$path_share
      • #Linux: /usr/share/minetest
      • #Windows: <install directory>/minetest-0.4.x
    • #$path_user:
      • #Linux: $HOME/.minetest
      • #Windows: C:/users/<user>/AppData/minetest (maybe)

Games

Games are looked up from:

  • #$path_share/games/gameid/
  • #$path_user/games/gameid/

Where gameid is unique to each game.

The game directory can contain the following files:

  • #game.conf, which contains:
    • #name = <Human-readable full name of the game> e.g. name = Minetest
    • #Optionally, game.conf can also contain disallowed_mapgens = <comma-separated mapgens> e.g. disallowed_mapgens = v5,v6,flat These mapgens are removed from the list of mapgens for the game.
  • #minetest.conf: Used to set default settings when running this game.
  • #settingtypes.txt: In the same format as the one in builtin. This settingtypes.txt will be parsed by the menu and the settings will be displayed in the "Games" category in the advanced settings tab.
  • #If the game contains a folder called textures the server will load it as a texturepack, overriding mod textures. Any server texturepack will override mod textures and the game texturepack.

Games can provide custom main menu images. They are put inside a menu directory inside the game directory.

The images are named $identifier.png, where $identifier is one of overlay, background, footer, header. If you want to specify multiple images for one identifier, add additional images named like $identifier.$n.png, with an ascending number $n starting with 1, and a random image will be chosen from the provided ones.

Mod load path

Generic:

  • #$path_share/games/gameid/mods/
  • #$path_share/mods/
  • #$path_user/games/gameid/mods/
  • #$path_user/mods/ (User-installed mods)
  • #$worldpath/worldmods/

In a run-in-place version (e.g. the distributed windows version):

  • #minetest-0.4.x/games/gameid/mods/
  • #minetest-0.4.x/mods/ (User-installed mods)
  • #minetest-0.4.x/worlds/worldname/worldmods/

On an installed version on Linux:

  • #/usr/share/minetest/games/gameid/mods/
  • #$HOME/.minetest/mods/ (User-installed mods)
  • #$HOME/.minetest/worlds/worldname/worldmods

Mod load path for world-specific games

It is possible to include a game in a world; in this case, no mods or games are loaded or checked from anywhere else.

This is useful for e.g. adventure worlds.

This happens if the following directory exists:

$world/game/

Mods should be then be placed in:

$world/game/mods/

Modpack support

Mods can be put in a subdirectory, if the parent directory, which otherwise should be a mod, contains a file named modpack.txt. This file shall be empty, except for lines starting with #, which are comments.

Mod directory structure

mods
|-- modname
|   |-- mod.conf
|   |-- screenshot.png
|   |-- settingtypes.txt
|   |-- init.lua
|   |-- models
|   |-- textures
|   |   |-- modname_stuff.png
|   |   `-- modname_something_else.png
|   |-- sounds
|   |-- media
|   |-- locale
|   `-- <custom data>
`-- another

modname

The location of this directory can be fetched by using minetest.get_modpath(modname).

mod.conf

A key-value store of mod details.

  • #name - the mod name. Allows Minetest to determine the mod name even if the folder is wrongly named.
  • #description - Description of mod to be shown in the Mods tab of the mainmenu.
  • #depends - A comma separated list of dependencies. These are mods that must be loaded before this mod.
  • #optional_depends - A comma separated list of optional dependencies. Like a dependency, but no error if the mod doesn't exist.

Note: to support 0.4.x, please also provide depends.txt.

screenshot.png

A screenshot shown in the mod manager within the main menu. It should have an aspect ratio of 3:2 and a minimum size of 300×200 pixels.

depends.txt

Deprecated: you should use mod.conf instead.

This file is used if there are no dependencies in mod.conf.

List of mods that have to be loaded before loading this mod.

A single line contains a single modname.

Optional dependencies can be defined by appending a question mark to a single modname. This means that if the specified mod is missing, it does not prevent this mod from being loaded.

description.txt

Deprecated: you should use mod.conf instead.

This file is used if there is no description in mod.conf.

A file containing a description to be shown in the Mods tab of the mainmenu.

settingtypes.txt

A file in the same format as the one in builtin. It will be parsed by the settings menu and the settings will be displayed in the "Mods" category.

init.lua

The main Lua script. Running this script should register everything it wants to register. Subsequent execution depends on minetest calling the registered callbacks.

minetest.settings can be used to read custom or existing settings at load time, if necessary. (See Settings)

models

Models for entities or meshnodes.

textures, sounds, media

Media files (textures, sounds, whatever) that will be transferred to the client and will be available for use by the mod.

locale

Translation files for the clients. (See Translations)

Naming convention for registered textual names

Registered names should generally be in this format:

`modname:<whatever>`

<whatever> can have these characters:

a-zA-Z0-9_

This is to prevent conflicting names from corrupting maps and is enforced by the mod loader.

Example

In the mod experimental, there is the ideal item/node/entity name tnt. So the name should be experimental:tnt.

Enforcement can be overridden by prefixing the name with :. This can be used for overriding the registrations of some other mod.

Example: Any mod can redefine experimental:tnt by using the name

:experimental:tnt

when registering it. (also that mod is required to have experimental as a dependency)

The : prefix can also be used for maintaining backwards compatibility.

Aliases

Aliases can be added by using minetest.register_alias(name, convert_to) or minetest.register_alias_force(name, convert_to).

This converts anything called name to convert_to.

The only difference between minetest.register_alias and minetest.register_alias_force is that if an item called name exists, minetest.register_alias will do nothing while minetest.register_alias_force will unregister it.

This can be used for maintaining backwards compatibility.

This can also set quick access names for things, e.g. if you have an item called epiclylongmodname:stuff, you could do

minetest.register_alias("stuff", "epiclylongmodname:stuff")

and be able to use /giveme stuff.

Mapgen aliases

In a game, a certain number of these must be set to tell core mapgens which of the game's nodes are to be used by the core mapgens. For example:

minetest.register_alias("mapgen_stone", "default:stone")

Aliases needed for all mapgens except Mapgen v6

Base terrain:

"mapgen_stone" "mapgen_water_source" "mapgen_river_water_source"

Caves:

"mapgen_lava_source"

Dungeons:

Only needed for registered biomes where 'node_stone' is stone: "mapgen_cobble" "mapgen_stair_cobble" "mapgen_mossycobble" Only needed for registered biomes where 'node_stone' is desert stone: "mapgen_desert_stone" "mapgen_stair_desert_stone" Only needed for registered biomes where 'node_stone' is sandstone: "mapgen_sandstone" "mapgen_sandstonebrick" "mapgen_stair_sandstone_block"

Aliases needed for Mapgen v6

Terrain and biomes:

"mapgen_stone" "mapgen_water_source" "mapgen_lava_source" "mapgen_dirt" "mapgen_dirt_with_grass" "mapgen_sand" "mapgen_gravel" "mapgen_desert_stone" "mapgen_desert_sand" "mapgen_dirt_with_snow" "mapgen_snowblock" "mapgen_snow" "mapgen_ice"

Flora:

"mapgen_tree" "mapgen_leaves" "mapgen_apple" "mapgen_jungletree" "mapgen_jungleleaves" "mapgen_junglegrass" "mapgen_pine_tree" "mapgen_pine_needles"

Dungeons:

"mapgen_cobble" "mapgen_stair_cobble" "mapgen_mossycobble" "mapgen_stair_desert_stone"

Textures

Mods should generally prefix their textures with modname_, e.g. given the mod name foomod, a texture could be called:

foomod_foothing.png

Textures are referred to by their complete name, or alternatively by stripping out the file extension:

  • #e.g. foomod_foothing.png
  • #e.g. foomod_foothing

Texture modifiers

There are various texture modifiers that can be used to generate textures on-the-fly.

Texture overlaying

Textures can be overlaid by putting a ^ between them.

Example:

default_dirt.png^default_grass_side.png

default_grass_side.png is overlaid over default_dirt.png. The texture with the lower resolution will be automatically upscaled to the higher resolution texture.

Texture grouping

Textures can be grouped together by enclosing them in ( and ).

Example: cobble.png^(thing1.png^thing2.png)

A texture for thing1.png^thing2.png is created and the resulting texture is overlaid on top of cobble.png.

Escaping

Modifiers that accept texture names (e.g. [combine) accept escaping to allow passing complex texture names as arguments. Escaping is done with backslash and is required for ^ and :.

Example: cobble.png^[lowpart:50:color.png\^[mask\:trans.png

The lower 50 percent of color.png^[mask:trans.png are overlaid on top of cobble.png.

Advanced texture modifiers

Crack

  • #[crack:<n>:<p>
  • #[cracko:<n>:<p>
  • #[crack:<t>:<n>:<p>
  • #[cracko:<t>:<n>:<p>

Parameters: <t> = tile count (in each direction) <n> = animation frame count * <p> = current animation frame

Draw a step of the crack animation on the texture. crack draws it normally, while cracko lays it over, keeping transparent pixels intact.

Example:

default_cobble.png^[crack:10:1

[combine:<w>x<h>:<x1>,<y1>=<file1>:<x2>,<y2>=<file2>:...

  • #<w> = width
  • #<h> = height
  • #<x> = x position
  • #<y> = y position
  • #<file> = texture to combine

Creates a texture of size <w> times <h> and blits the listed files to their specified coordinates.

Example:

[combine:16x32:0,0=default_cobble.png:0,16=default_wood.png

[resize:<w>x<h>

Resizes the texture to the given dimensions.

Example:

default_sandstone.png^[resize:16x16

[opacity:<r>

Makes the base image transparent according to the given ratio.

r must be between 0 and 255. 0 means totally transparent. 255 means totally opaque.

Example:

default_sandstone.png^[opacity:127

[invert:<mode>

Inverts the given channels of the base image. Mode may contain the characters "r", "g", "b", "a". Only the channels that are mentioned in the mode string will be inverted.

Example:

default_apple.png^[invert:rgb

[brighten

Brightens the texture.

Example:

tnt_tnt_side.png^[brighten

[noalpha

Makes the texture completely opaque.

Example:

default_leaves.png^[noalpha

[makealpha:<r>,<g>,<b>

Convert one color to transparency.

Example:

default_cobble.png^[makealpha:128,128,128

[transform<t>

  • #<t> = transformation(s) to apply

Rotates and/or flips the image.

<t> can be a number (between 0 and 7) or a transform name. Rotations are counter-clockwise.

0  I      identity
1  R90    rotate by 90 degrees
2  R180   rotate by 180 degrees
3  R270   rotate by 270 degrees
4  FX     flip X
5  FXR90  flip X then rotate by 90 degrees
6  FY     flip Y
7  FYR90  flip Y then rotate by 90 degrees

Example:

default_stone.png^[transformFXR90

[inventorycube{<top>{<left>{<right>

Escaping does not apply here and ^ is replaced by & in texture names instead.

Create an inventory cube texture using the side textures.

Example:

[inventorycube{grass.png{dirt.png&grass_side.png{dirt.png&grass_side.png

Creates an inventorycube with grass.png, dirt.png^grass_side.png and dirt.png^grass_side.png textures

[lowpart:<percent>:<file>

Blit the lower <percent>% part of <file> on the texture.

Example:

base.png^[lowpart:25:overlay.png

[verticalframe:<t>:<n>

  • #<t> = animation frame count
  • #<n> = current animation frame

Crops the texture to a frame of a vertical animation.

Example:

default_torch_animated.png^[verticalframe:16:8

[mask:<file>

Apply a mask to the base image.

The mask is applied using binary AND.

[sheet:<w>x<h>:<x>,<y>

Retrieves a tile at position x,y from the base image which it assumes to be a tilesheet with dimensions w,h.

[colorize:<color>:<ratio>

Colorize the textures with the given color. <color> is specified as a ColorString. <ratio> is an int ranging from 0 to 255 or the word "alpha". If it is an int, then it specifies how far to interpolate between the colors where 0 is only the texture color and 255 is only <color>. If omitted, the alpha of <color> will be used as the ratio. If it is the word "alpha", then each texture pixel will contain the RGB of <color> and the alpha of <color> multiplied by the alpha of the texture pixel.

[multiply:<color>

Multiplies texture colors with the given color. <color> is specified as a ColorString. Result is more like what you'd expect if you put a color on top of another color. Meaning white surfaces get a lot of your new color while black parts don't change very much.

Hardware coloring

The goal of hardware coloring is to simplify the creation of colorful nodes. If your textures use the same pattern, and they only differ in their color (like colored wool blocks), you can use hardware coloring instead of creating and managing many texture files. All of these methods use color multiplication (so a white-black texture with red coloring will result in red-black color).

Static coloring

This method is useful if you wish to create nodes/items with the same texture, in different colors, each in a new node/item definition.

Global color

When you register an item or node, set its color field (which accepts a ColorSpec) to the desired color.

An ItemStacks static color can be overwritten by the color metadata field. If you set that field to a ColorString, that color will be used.

Tile color

Each tile may have an individual static color, which overwrites every other coloring methods. To disable the coloring of a face, set its color to white (because multiplying with white does nothing). You can set the color property of the tiles in the node's definition if the tile is in table format.

Palettes

For nodes and items which can have many colors, a palette is more suitable. A palette is a texture, which can contain up to 256 pixels. Each pixel is one possible color for the node/item. You can register one node/item, which can have up to 256 colors.

Palette indexing

When using palettes, you always provide a pixel index for the given node or ItemStack. The palette is read from left to right and from top to bottom. If the palette has less than 256 pixels, then it is stretched to contain exactly 256 pixels (after arranging the pixels to one line). The indexing starts from 0.

Examples:

  • 16x16 palette, index = 0: the top left corner
  • 16x16 palette, index = 4: the fifth pixel in the first row
  • 16x16 palette, index = 16: the pixel below the top left corner
  • 16x16 palette, index = 255: the bottom right corner
  • 2 (width)x4 (height) palette, index=31: the top left corner. The palette has 8 pixels, so each pixel is stretched to 32 pixels, to ensure the total 256 pixels.
  • 2x4 palette, index=32: the top right corner
  • 2x4 palette, index=63: the top right corner
  • 2x4 palette, index=64: the pixel below the top left corner

Using palettes with items

When registering an item, set the item definition's palette field to a texture. You can also use texture modifiers.

The ItemStack's color depends on the palette_index field of the stack's metadata. palette_index is an integer, which specifies the index of the pixel to use.

Linking palettes with nodes

When registering a node, set the item definition's palette field to a texture. You can also use texture modifiers. The node's color depends on its param2, so you also must set an appropriate paramtype2:

  • #paramtype2 = "color" for nodes which use their full param2 for palette indexing. These nodes can have 256 different colors. The palette should contain 256 pixels.
  • #paramtype2 = "colorwallmounted" for nodes which use the first five bits (most significant) of param2 for palette indexing. The remaining three bits are describing rotation, as in wallmounted paramtype2. Division by 8 yields the palette index (without stretching the palette). These nodes can have 32 different colors, and the palette should contain 32 pixels. Examples:
    • #param2 = 17 is 2 * 8 + 1, so the rotation is 1 and the third (= 2 + 1) pixel will be picked from the palette.
    • #param2 = 35 is 4 * 8 + 3, so the rotation is 3 and the fifth (= 4 + 1) pixel will be picked from the palette.
  • #paramtype2 = "colorfacedir" for nodes which use the first three bits of param2 for palette indexing. The remaining five bits are describing rotation, as in facedir paramtype2. Division by 32 yields the palette index (without stretching the palette). These nodes can have 8 different colors, and the palette should contain 8 pixels. Examples:
    • #param2 = 17 is 0 * 32 + 17, so the rotation is 17 and the first (= 0 + 1) pixel will be picked from the palette.
    • #param2 = 35 is 1 * 32 + 3, so the rotation is 3 and the second (= 1 + 1) pixel will be picked from the palette.

To colorize a node on the map, set its param2 value (according to the node's paramtype2).

Conversion between nodes in the inventory and the on the map

Static coloring is the same for both cases, there is no need for conversion.

If the ItemStack's metadata contains the color field, it will be lost on placement, because nodes on the map can only use palettes.

If the ItemStack's metadata contains the palette_index field, it is automatically transferred between node and item forms by the engine, when a player digs or places a colored node. You can disable this feature by setting the drop field of the node to itself (without metadata). To transfer the color to a special drop, you need a drop table.

Example:

minetest.register_node("mod:stone", {
    description = "Stone",
    tiles = {"default_stone.png"},
    paramtype2 = "color",
    palette = "palette.png",
    drop = {
        items = {
            -- assume that mod:cobblestone also has the same palette
            {items = {"mod:cobblestone"}, inherit_color = true },
        }
    }
})

Colored items in craft recipes

Craft recipes only support item strings, but fortunately item strings can also contain metadata. Example craft recipe registration:

minetest.register_craft({
    output = minetest.itemstring_with_palette("wool:block", 3),
    type = "shapeless",
    recipe = {
        "wool:block",
        "dye:red",
    },
})

To set the color field, you can use minetest.itemstring_with_color.

Metadata field filtering in the recipe field are not supported yet, so the craft output is independent of the color of the ingredients.

Soft texture overlay

Sometimes hardware coloring is not enough, because it affects the whole tile. Soft texture overlays were added to Minetest to allow the dynamic coloring of only specific parts of the node's texture. For example a grass block may have colored grass, while keeping the dirt brown.

These overlays are 'soft', because unlike texture modifiers, the layers are not merged in the memory, but they are simply drawn on top of each other. This allows different hardware coloring, but also means that tiles with overlays are drawn slower. Using too much overlays might cause FPS loss.

For inventory and wield images you can specify overlays which hardware coloring does not modify. You have to set inventory_overlay and wield_overlay fields to an image name.

To define a node overlay, simply set the overlay_tiles field of the node definition. These tiles are defined in the same way as plain tiles: they can have a texture name, color etc. To skip one face, set that overlay tile to an empty string.

Example (colored grass block):

minetest.register_node("default:dirt_with_grass", {
    description = "Dirt with Grass",
    -- Regular tiles, as usual
    -- The dirt tile disables palette coloring
    tiles = { {name = "default_grass.png"},
        {name = "default_dirt.png", color = "white"}},
    -- Overlay tiles: define them in the same style
    -- The top and bottom tile does not have overlay
    overlay_tiles = {"", "",
        {name = "default_grass_side.png", tileable_vertical = false}},
    -- Global color, used in inventory
    color = "green",
    -- Palette in the world
    paramtype2 = "color",
    palette = "default_foilage.png",
})

Sounds

Only Ogg Vorbis files are supported.

For positional playing of sounds, only single-channel (mono) files are supported. Otherwise OpenAL will play them non-positionally.

Mods should generally prefix their sounds with modname_, e.g. given the mod name "foomod", a sound could be called:

foomod_foosound.ogg

Sounds are referred to by their name with a dot, a single digit and the file extension stripped out. When a sound is played, the actual sound file is chosen randomly from the matching sounds.

When playing the sound foomod_foosound, the sound is chosen randomly from the available ones of the following files:

  • #foomod_foosound.ogg
  • #foomod_foosound.0.ogg
  • #foomod_foosound.1.ogg
  • (...)
  • #foomod_foosound.9.ogg

Examples of sound parameter tables:

-- Play locationless on all clients
{
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    fade = 0.0, -- default, change to a value > 0 to fade the sound in
    pitch = 1.0, -- default
}
-- Play locationless to one player
{
    to_player = name,
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    fade = 0.0, -- default, change to a value > 0 to fade the sound in
    pitch = 1.0, -- default
}
-- Play locationless to one player, looped
{
    to_player = name,
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    loop = true,
}
-- Play in a location
{
    pos = {x = 1, y = 2, z = 3},
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    max_hear_distance = 32, -- default, uses an euclidean metric
}
-- Play connected to an object, looped
{
    object = <an ObjectRef>,
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    max_hear_distance = 32, -- default, uses an euclidean metric
    loop = true,
}

Looped sounds must either be connected to an object or played locationless to one player using to_player = name,

SimpleSoundSpec

  • e.g. ""
  • #e.g. "default_place_node"
  • e.g. {}
  • #e.g. {name = "default_place_node"}
  • #e.g. {name = "default_place_node", gain = 1.0}
  • #e.g. {name = "default_place_node", gain = 1.0, pitch = 1.0}

Registered definitions of stuff

Anything added using certain minetest.register_* functions get added to the global minetest.registered_* tables.

  • #

    minetest.register_entity(name, prototype table)

    • #added to minetest.registered_entities[name]
  • #

    minetest.register_node(name, node definition)

    • #added to minetest.registered_items[name]
    • #added to minetest.registered_nodes[name]
  • #

    minetest.register_tool(name, item definition)

    • #added to minetest.registered_items[name]
  • #

    minetest.register_craftitem(name, item definition)

    • #added to minetest.registered_items[name]
  • #

    minetest.unregister_item(name)

    • Unregisters the item name from engine, and deletes the entry with key
    • #name from minetest.registered_items and from the associated item
    • #table according to its nature: minetest.registered_nodes[] etc
  • #

    minetest.register_biome(biome definition)

    • returns an integer uniquely identifying the registered biome
    • #added to minetest.registered_biome with the key of biome.name
    • #if biome.name is nil, the key is the returned ID
  • #

    minetest.unregister_biome(name)

    • Unregisters the biome name from engine, and deletes the entry with key
    • #name from minetest.registered_biome
  • #

    minetest.register_ore(ore definition)

    • returns an integer uniquely identifying the registered ore
    • #added to minetest.registered_ores with the key of ore.name
    • #if ore.name is nil, the key is the returned ID
  • #

    minetest.register_decoration(decoration definition)

    • returns an integer uniquely identifying the registered decoration
    • #added to minetest.registered_decorations with the key of decoration.name.
    • #if decoration.name is nil, the key is the returned ID
  • #

    minetest.register_schematic(schematic definition)

    • returns an integer uniquely identifying the registered schematic
    • #added to minetest.registered_schematic with the key of schematic.name
    • #if schematic.name is nil, the key is the returned ID
    • if the schematic is loaded from a file, schematic.name is set to the filename.
    • if the function is called when loading the mod, and schematic.name is a relative path, then the current mod path will be prepended to the schematic filename.
  • #

    minetest.clear_registered_biomes()

    • clears all biomes currently registered
  • #

    minetest.clear_registered_ores()

    • clears all ores currently registered
  • #

    minetest.clear_registered_decorations()

    • clears all decorations currently registered
  • #

    minetest.clear_registered_schematics()

    • clears all schematics currently registered

Note that in some cases you will stumble upon things that are not contained in these tables (e.g. when a mod has been removed). Always check for existence before trying to access the fields.

Example: If you want to check the drawtype of a node, you could do:

local function get_nodedef_field(nodename, fieldname)
    if not minetest.registered_nodes[nodename] then
        return nil
    end
    return minetest.registered_nodes[nodename][fieldname]
end
local drawtype = get_nodedef_field(nodename, "drawtype")

Example: minetest.get_item_group(name, group) has been implemented as:

function minetest.get_item_group(name, group)
    if not minetest.registered_items[name] or not
            minetest.registered_items[name].groups[group] then
        return 0
    end
    return minetest.registered_items[name].groups[group]
end

Nodes

Nodes are the bulk data of the world: cubes and other things that take the space of a cube. Huge amounts of them are handled efficiently, but they are quite static.

The definition of a node is stored and can be accessed by name in

minetest.registered_nodes[node.name]

See "Registered definitions of stuff".

Nodes are passed by value between Lua and the engine. They are represented by a table:

{name="name", param1=num, param2=num}

param1 and param2 are 8-bit integers ranging from 0 to 255. The engine uses them for certain automated functions. If you don't use these functions, you can use them to store arbitrary values.

The functions of param1 and param2 are determined by certain fields in the node definition:

param1 is reserved for the engine when paramtype != "none":

paramtype = "light"
^ The value stores light with and without sun in its upper and lower 4 bits
  respectively. Allows light to propagate from or through the node with
  light value falling by 1 per node. This is essential for a light source
  node to spread its light.

param2 is reserved for the engine when any of these are used:

liquidtype == "flowing"
^ The level and some flags of the liquid is stored in param2
drawtype == "flowingliquid"
^ The drawn liquid level is read from param2
drawtype == "torchlike"
drawtype == "signlike"
paramtype2 == "wallmounted"
^ The rotation of the node is stored in param2. You can make this value
  by using minetest.dir_to_wallmounted().
paramtype2 == "facedir"
^ The rotation of the node is stored in param2. Furnaces and chests are
  rotated this way. Can be made by using minetest.dir_to_facedir().
  Values range 0 - 23
  facedir / 4 = axis direction:
  0 = y+    1 = z+    2 = z-    3 = x+    4 = x-    5 = y-
  facedir modulo 4 = rotation around that axis
paramtype2 == "leveled"
^ Only valid for "nodebox" with 'type = "leveled"', and "plantlike_rooted".
  Leveled nodebox:
    The level of the top face of the nodebox is stored in param2.
    The other faces are defined by 'fixed = {}' like 'type = "fixed"'
    nodeboxes.
    The nodebox height is (param2 / 64) nodes.
    The maximum accepted value of param2 is 127.
  Rooted plantlike:
    The height of the 'plantlike' section is stored in param2.
    The height is (param2 / 16) nodes.
paramtype2 == "degrotate"
^ Only valid for "plantlike". The rotation of the node is stored in param2.
  Values range 0 - 179. The value stored in param2 is multiplied by two to
  get the actual rotation in degrees of the node.
paramtype2 == "meshoptions"
^ Only valid for "plantlike". The value of param2 becomes a bitfield which
  can be used to change how the client draws plantlike nodes.
  Bits 0, 1 and 2 form a mesh selector.
  Currently the following meshes are choosable:
    0 = a "x" shaped plant (ordinary plant)
    1 = a "+" shaped plant (just rotated 45 degrees)
    2 = a "*" shaped plant with 3 faces instead of 2
    3 = a "#" shaped plant with 4 faces instead of 2
    4 = a "#" shaped plant with 4 faces that lean outwards
    5-7 are unused and reserved for future meshes.
  Bits 3 through 7 are optional flags that can be combined and give these
  effects:
    bit 3 (0x08) - Makes the plant slightly vary placement horizontally
    bit 4 (0x10) - Makes the plant mesh 1.4x larger
    bit 5 (0x20) - Moves each face randomly a small bit down (1/8 max)
    bits 6-7 are reserved for future use.
paramtype2 == "color"
^ `param2` tells which color is picked from the palette.
  The palette should have 256 pixels.
paramtype2 == "colorfacedir"
^ Same as `facedir`, but with colors.
  The first three bits of `param2` tells which color
  is picked from the palette.
  The palette should have 8 pixels.
paramtype2 == "colorwallmounted"
^ Same as `wallmounted`, but with colors.
  The first five bits of `param2` tells which color
  is picked from the palette.
  The palette should have 32 pixels.
paramtype2 == "glasslikeliquidlevel"
^ Only valid for "glasslike_framed" or "glasslike_framed_optional"
  drawtypes.
  param2 values 0-63 define 64 levels of internal liquid, 0 being empty and
  63 being full.
  Liquid texture is defined using `special_tiles = {"modname_tilename.png"},`

Nodes can also contain extra data. See "Node Metadata".

Node drawtypes

There are a bunch of different looking node types.

Look for examples in games/minimal or games/minetest_game.

  • #normal
    • A node-sized cube.
  • #airlike
    • Invisible, uses no texture.
  • #liquid
    • The cubic source node for a liquid.
  • #flowingliquid
    • The flowing version of a liquid, appears with various heights and slopes.
  • #glasslike
    • Often used for partially-transparent nodes.
    • Only external sides of textures are visible.
  • #glasslike_framed
    • All face-connected nodes are drawn as one volume within a surrounding frame.
    • #The frame appearence is generated from the edges of the first texture specified in tiles. The width of the edges used are 1/16th of texture size: 1 pixel for 16x16, 2 pixels for 32x32 etc.
    • #The glass 'shine' (or other desired detail) on each node face is supplied by the second texture specified in tiles.
  • #glasslike_framed_optional
    • This switches between the above 2 drawtypes according to the menu setting 'Connected Glass'.
  • #allfaces
    • Often used for partially-transparent nodes.
    • External and internal sides of textures are visible.
  • #allfaces_optional
    • Often used for leaves nodes.
    • #This switches between normal, glasslike and allfaces according to the menu setting: Opaque Leaves / Simple Leaves / Fancy Leaves.
    • #With 'Simple Leaves' selected, the texture specified in special_tiles is used instead, if present. This allows a visually thicker texture to be used to compensate for how glasslike reduces visual thickness.
  • #torchlike
    • A single vertical texture.
    • #If placed on top of a node, uses the first texture specified in tiles.
    • #If placed against the underside of a node, uses the second texture specified in tiles.
    • #If placed on the side of a node, uses the third texture specified in tiles and is perpendicular to that node.
  • #signlike
    • A single texture parallel to, and mounted against, the top, underside or side of a node.
  • #plantlike
    • Two vertical and diagonal textures at right-angles to each other.
    • #See paramtype2 == "meshoptions" above for other options.
  • #firelike
    • #When above a flat surface, appears as 6 textures, the central 2 as plantlike plus 4 more surrounding those.
    • If not above a surface the central 2 do not appear, but the texture appears against the faces of surrounding nodes if they are present.
  • #fencelike
    • A 3D model suitable for a wooden fence.
    • One placed node appears as a single vertical post.
    • Adjacently-placed nodes cause horizontal bars to appear between them.
  • #raillike
    • Often used for tracks for mining carts.
    • #Requires 4 textures to be specified in tiles, in order: Straight, curved, t-junction, crossing.
    • #Each placed node automatically switches to a suitable rotated texture determined by the adjacent raillike nodes, in order to create a continuous track network.
    • Becomes a sloping node if placed against stepped nodes.
  • #nodebox
    • Often used for stairs and slabs.
    • Allows defining nodes consisting of an arbitrary number of boxes.
    • See 'Node boxes' below for more information.
  • #mesh
    • Uses models for nodes.
    • Tiles should hold model materials textures.
    • Only static meshes are implemented.
    • For supported model formats see Irrlicht engine documentation.
  • #plantlike_rooted
    • #Enables underwater plantlike without air bubbles around the nodes.
    • #Consists of a base cube at the co-ordinates of the node plus a plantlike extension above with a height of param2 / 16 nodes.
    • #The plantlike extension visually passes through any nodes above the base cube without affecting them.
    • #The base cube texture tiles are defined as normal, the plantlike extension uses the defined special tile, for example: special_tiles = { {name = "default_papyrus.png", tileable_vertical = true}},

*_optional drawtypes need less rendering time if deactivated (always client-side).

Node boxes

Node selection boxes are defined using "node boxes".

A nodebox is defined as any of:

{
    -- A normal cube; the default in most things
    type = "regular"
}
{
    -- A fixed box (or boxes) (facedir param2 is used, if applicable)
    type = "fixed",
    fixed = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
}
{
    -- A variable height box (or boxes) with the top face position defined
    -- by the node parameter 'leveled = ', or if 'paramtype2 == "leveled"'
    -- by param2.
    -- Other faces are defined by 'fixed = {}' as with 'type = "fixed"'.
    type = "leveled",
    fixed = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
}
{
    -- A box like the selection box for torches
    -- (wallmounted param2 is used, if applicable)
    type = "wallmounted",
    wall_top = box,
    wall_bottom = box,
    wall_side = box
}
{
    -- A node that has optional boxes depending on neighbouring nodes'
    -- presence and type. See also `connects_to`.
    type = "connected",
    fixed = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    connect_top = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    connect_bottom = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    connect_front = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    connect_left = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    connect_back = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    connect_right = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    -- The following `disconnected_*` boxes are the opposites of the
    -- `connect_*` ones above, i.e. when a node has no suitable neighbour
    -- on the respective side, the corresponding disconnected box is drawn.
    disconnected_top = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    disconnected_bottom = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    disconnected_front = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    disconnected_left = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    disconnected_back = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    disconnected_right = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
    disconnected = box OR {box1, box2, ...} -- when there is *no* neighbour
    disconnected_sides = box OR {box1, box2, ...} -- when there are *no*
                                                    neighbours to the sides
}

A box is defined as:

{x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2}

A box of a regular node would look like:

{-0.5, -0.5, -0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5},

Perlin noise

Perlin noise creates a continuously-varying value depending on the input values. Usually in Minetest the input values are either 2D or 3D co-ordinates in nodes. The result is used during map generation to create the terrain shape, vary heat and humidity to distribute biomes, vary the density of decorations or vary the structure of ores.

Structure of perlin noise

An 'octave' is a simple noise generator that outputs a value between -1 and 1. The smooth wavy noise it generates has a single characteristic scale, almost like a 'wavelength', so on its own does not create fine detail. Due to this perlin noise combines several octaves to create variation on multiple scales. Each additional octave has a smaller 'wavelength' than the previous.

This combination results in noise varying very roughly between -2.0 and 2.0 and with an average value of 0.0, so scale and offset are then used to multiply and offset the noise variation.

The final perlin noise variation is created as follows:

noise = offset + scale * (octave1 + octave2 * persistence + octave3 * persistence ^ 2 + octave4 * persistence ^ 3 + ...)

Noise Parameters

Noise Parameters are commonly called NoiseParams.

offset

After the multiplication by scale this is added to the result and is the final step in creating the noise value. Can be positive or negative.

scale

Once all octaves have been combined, the result is multiplied by this. Can be positive or negative.

spread

For octave1, this is roughly the change of input value needed for a very large variation in the noise value generated by octave1. It is almost like a 'wavelength' for the wavy noise variation. Each additional octave has a 'wavelength' that is smaller than the previous octave, to create finer detail. spread will therefore roughly be the typical size of the largest structures in the final noise variation.

spread is a vector with values for x, y, z to allow the noise variation to be stretched or compressed in the desired axes. Values are positive numbers.

seed

This is a whole number that determines the entire pattern of the noise variation. Altering it enables different noise patterns to be created. With other parameters equal, different seeds produce different noise patterns and identical seeds produce identical noise patterns.

For this parameter you can randomly choose any whole number. Usually it is preferable for this to be different from other seeds, but sometimes it is useful to be able to create identical noise patterns.

When used in mapgen this is actually a 'seed offset', it is added to the 'world seed' to create the seed used by the noise, to ensure the noise has a different pattern in different worlds.

octaves

The number of simple noise generators that are combined. A whole number, 1 or more. Each additional octave adds finer detail to the noise but also increases the noise calculation load. 3 is a typical minimum for a high quality, complex and natural-looking noise variation. 1 octave has a slight 'gridlike' appearence.

Choose the number of octaves according to the spread and lacunarity, and the size of the finest detail you require. For example: if spread is 512 nodes, lacunarity is 2.0 and finest detail required is 16 nodes, octaves will be 6 because the 'wavelengths' of the octaves will be 512, 256, 128, 64, 32, 16 nodes.

persistence

Each additional octave has an amplitude that is the amplitude of the previous octave multiplied by persistence, to reduce the amplitude of finer details, as is often helpful and natural to do so. Since this controls the balance of fine detail to large-scale detail persistence can be thought of as the 'roughness' of the noise.

A positive or negative non-zero number, often between 0.3 and 1.0. A common medium value is 0.5, such that each octave has half the amplitude of the previous octave. This may need to be tuned when altering lacunarity; when doing so consider that a common medium value is 1 / lacunarity.

lacunarity

Each additional octave has a 'wavelength' that is the 'wavelength' of the previous octave multiplied by 1 / lacunarity, to create finer detail. 'lacunarity' is often 2.0 so 'wavelength' often halves per octave.

A positive number no smaller than 1.0. Values below 2.0 create higher quality noise at the expense of requiring more octaves to cover a paticular range of 'wavelengths'.

flags

Leave this field unset for no special handling. Currently supported are defaults, eased and absvalue:

defaults

Specify this if you would like to keep auto-selection of eased/not-eased while specifying some other flags.

eased

Maps noise gradient values onto a quintic S-curve before performing interpolation. This results in smooth, rolling noise. Disable this (noeased) for sharp-looking noise with a slightly gridded appearence. If no flags are specified (or defaults is), 2D noise is eased and 3D noise is not eased. Easing a 3D noise significantly increases the noise calculation load, so use with restraint.

absvalue

The absolute value of each octave's noise variation is used when combining the octaves. The final perlin noise variation is created as follows:

noise = offset + scale * (abs(octave1) + abs(octave2) * persistence + abs(octave3) * persistence ^ 2 + abs(octave4) * persistence ^ 3 + ...)

Format example

For 2D or 3D perlin noise or perlin noise maps:

np_terrain = {
    offset = 0,
    scale = 1,
    spread = {x = 500, y = 500, z = 500},
    seed = 571347,
    octaves = 5,
    persist = 0.63,
    lacunarity = 2.0,
    flags = "defaults, absvalue",
}

For 2D noise the Z component of spread is still defined but is ignored. A single noise parameter table can be used for 2D or 3D noise.

Ore types

These tell in what manner the ore is generated.

All default ores are of the uniformly-distributed scatter type.

scatter

Randomly chooses a location and generates a cluster of ore.

If noise_params is specified, the ore will be placed if the 3D perlin noise at that point is greater than the noise_threshold, giving the ability to create a non-equal distribution of ore.

sheet

Creates a sheet of ore in a blob shape according to the 2D perlin noise described by noise_params and noise_threshold. This is essentially an improved version of the so-called "stratus" ore seen in some unofficial mods.

This sheet consists of vertical columns of uniform randomly distributed height, varying between the inclusive range column_height_min and column_height_max. If column_height_min is not specified, this parameter defaults to 1. If column_height_max is not specified, this parameter defaults to clust_size for reverse compatibility. New code should prefer column_height_max.

The column_midpoint_factor parameter controls the position of the column at which ore emanates from. If 1, columns grow upward. If 0, columns grow downward. If 0.5, columns grow equally starting from each direction. column_midpoint_factor is a decimal number ranging in value from 0 to 1. If this parameter is not specified, the default is 0.5.

The ore parameters clust_scarcity and clust_num_ores are ignored for this ore type.

puff

Creates a sheet of ore in a cloud-like puff shape.

As with the sheet ore type, the size and shape of puffs are described by noise_params and noise_threshold and are placed at random vertical positions within the currently generated chunk.

The vertical top and bottom displacement of each puff are determined by the noise parameters np_puff_top and np_puff_bottom, respectively.

blob

Creates a deformed sphere of ore according to 3d perlin noise described by noise_params. The maximum size of the blob is clust_size, and clust_scarcity has the same meaning as with the scatter type.

vein

Creates veins of ore varying in density by according to the intersection of two instances of 3d perlin noise with different seeds, both described by noise_params.

random_factor varies the influence random chance has on placement of an ore inside the vein, which is 1 by default. Note that modifying this parameter may require adjusting noise_threshold.

The parameters clust_scarcity, clust_num_ores, and clust_size are ignored by this ore type.

This ore type is difficult to control since it is sensitive to small changes. The following is a decent set of parameters to work from:

noise_params = {
    offset  = 0,
    scale   = 3,
    spread  = {x=200, y=200, z=200},
    seed    = 5390,
    octaves = 4,
    persist = 0.5,
    lacunarity = 2.0,
    flags = "eased",
},
noise_threshold = 1.6

WARNING: Use this ore type very sparingly since it is ~200x more computationally expensive than any other ore.

stratum

Creates a single undulating ore stratum that is continuous across mapchunk borders and horizontally spans the world.

The 2D perlin noise described by noise_params defines the Y co-ordinate of the stratum midpoint. The 2D perlin noise described by np_stratum_thickness defines the stratum's vertical thickness (in units of nodes). Due to being continuous across mapchunk borders the stratum's vertical thickness is unlimited.

If the noise parameter noise_params is omitted the ore will occur from y_min to y_max in a simple horizontal stratum.

A parameter stratum_thickness can be provided instead of the noise parameter np_stratum_thickness, to create a constant thickness.

Leaving out one or both noise parameters makes the ore generation less intensive, useful when adding multiple strata.

y_min and y_max define the limits of the ore generation and for performance reasons should be set as close together as possible but without clipping the stratum's Y variation.

Each node in the stratum has a 1-in-clust_scarcity chance of being ore, so a solid-ore stratum would require a clust_scarcity of 1.

The parameters clust_num_ores, clust_size, noise_threshold and random_factor are ignored by this ore type.

Ore attributes

See section "Flag Specifier Format".

Currently supported flags: puff_cliffs, puff_additive_composition.

puff_cliffs

If set, puff ore generation will not taper down large differences in displacement when approaching the edge of a puff. This flag has no effect for ore types other than puff.

puff_additive_composition

By default, when noise described by np_puff_top or np_puff_bottom results in a negative displacement, the sub-column at that point is not generated. With this attribute set, puff ore generation will instead generate the absolute difference in noise displacement values. This flag has no effect for ore types other than puff.

Decoration types

The varying types of decorations that can be placed.

simple

Creates a 1 times H times 1 column of a specified node (or a random node from a list, if a decoration list is specified). Can specify a certain node it must spawn next to, such as water or lava, for example. Can also generate a decoration of random height between a specified lower and upper bound. This type of decoration is intended for placement of grass, flowers, cacti, papyri, waterlilies and so on.

schematic

Copies a box of MapNodes from a specified schematic file (or raw description). Can specify a probability of a node randomly appearing when placed. This decoration type is intended to be used for multi-node sized discrete structures, such as trees, cave spikes, rocks, and so on.

Schematic specifier

A schematic specifier identifies a schematic by either a filename to a Minetest Schematic file (.mts) or through raw data supplied through Lua, in the form of a table. This table specifies the following fields:

  • #The size field is a 3D vector containing the dimensions of the provided schematic. (required)
  • #The yslice_prob field is a table of {ypos, prob} which sets the yposth vertical slice of the schematic to have a prob / 256 * 100 chance of occurring. (default: 255)
  • #The data field is a flat table of MapNode tables making up the schematic, in the order of [z [y [x]]]. (required) Each MapNode table contains:
    • #name: the name of the map node to place (required)
    • #prob (alias param1): the probability of this node being placed (default: 255)
    • #param2: the raw param2 value of the node being placed onto the map (default: 0)
    • #force_place: boolean representing if the node should forcibly overwrite any previous contents (default: false)

About probability values:

  • #A probability value of 0 or 1 means that node will never appear (0% chance).
  • #A probability value of 254 or 255 means the node will always appear (100% chance).
  • #If the probability value p is greater than 1, then there is a (p / 256 * 100) percent chance that node will appear when the schematic is placed on the map.

Schematic attributes

See section "Flag Specifier Format".

Currently supported flags: place_center_x, place_center_y, place_center_z, force_placement.

  • #place_center_x: Placement of this decoration is centered along the X axis.
  • #place_center_y: Placement of this decoration is centered along the Y axis.
  • #place_center_z: Placement of this decoration is centered along the Z axis.
  • #force_placement: Schematic nodes other than "ignore" will replace existing nodes.

HUD element types

The position field is used for all element types.

To account for differing resolutions, the position coordinates are the percentage of the screen, ranging in value from 0 to 1.

The name field is not yet used, but should contain a description of what the HUD element represents. The direction field is the direction in which something is drawn.

0 draws from left to right, 1 draws from right to left, 2 draws from top to bottom, and 3 draws from bottom to top.

The alignment field specifies how the item will be aligned. It ranges from -1 to 1, with 0 being the center. -1 is moved to the left/up, and 1 is to the right/down. Fractional values can be used.

The offset field specifies a pixel offset from the position. Contrary to position, the offset is not scaled to screen size. This allows for some precisely positioned items in the HUD.

Note: offset will adapt to screen DPI as well as user defined scaling factor!

Below are the specific uses for fields in each type; fields not listed for that type are ignored.

Note: Future revisions to the HUD API may be incompatible; the HUD API is still in the experimental stages.

image

Displays an image on the HUD.

  • #scale: The scale of the image, with 1 being the original texture size. Only the X coordinate scale is used (positive values). Negative values represent that percentage of the screen it should take; e.g. x=-100 means 100% (width).
  • #text: The name of the texture that is displayed.
  • #alignment: The alignment of the image.
  • #offset: offset in pixels from position.

text

Displays text on the HUD.

  • #scale: Defines the bounding rectangle of the text. A value such as {x=100, y=100} should work.
  • #text: The text to be displayed in the HUD element.
  • #number: An integer containing the RGB value of the color used to draw the text. Specify 0xFFFFFF for white text, 0xFF0000 for red, and so on.
  • #alignment: The alignment of the text.
  • #offset: offset in pixels from position.

statbar

Displays a horizontal bar made up of half-images.

  • #text: The name of the texture that is used.
  • #number: The number of half-textures that are displayed. If odd, will end with a vertically center-split texture.
  • #direction
  • #offset: offset in pixels from position.
  • #size: If used, will force full-image size to this value (override texture pack image size)

inventory

  • #text: The name of the inventory list to be displayed.
  • #number: Number of items in the inventory to be displayed.
  • #item: Position of item that is selected.
  • #direction
  • #offset: offset in pixels from position.

waypoint

Displays distance to selected world position.

  • #name: The name of the waypoint.
  • #text: Distance suffix. Can be blank.
  • #number: An integer containing the RGB value of the color used to draw the text.
  • #world_pos: World position of the waypoint.

Representations of simple things

Position/vector

{x=num, y=num, z=num}

For helper functions see "Vector helpers".

pointed_thing

  • #{type="nothing"}
  • #{type="node", under=pos, above=pos}
  • #{type="object", ref=ObjectRef}

Flag Specifier Format

Flags using the standardized flag specifier format can be specified in either of two ways, by string or table.

The string format is a comma-delimited set of flag names; whitespace and unrecognized flag fields are ignored. Specifying a flag in the string sets the flag, and specifying a flag prefixed by the string "no" explicitly clears the flag from whatever the default may be.

In addition to the standard string flag format, the schematic flags field can also be a table of flag names to boolean values representing whether or not the flag is set. Additionally, if a field with the flag name prefixed with "no" is present, mapped to a boolean of any value, the specified flag is unset.

E.g. A flag field of value

{place_center_x = true, place_center_y=false, place_center_z=true}

is equivalent to

{place_center_x = true, noplace_center_y=true, place_center_z=true}

which is equivalent to

"place_center_x, noplace_center_y, place_center_z"

or even

"place_center_x, place_center_z"

since, by default, no schematic attributes are set.

Items

Item types

There are three kinds of items: nodes, tools and craftitems.

  • #Node (register_node): A node from the world.
  • #Tool (register_tool): A tool/weapon that can dig and damage things according to tool_capabilities.
  • #Craftitem (register_craftitem): A miscellaneous item.

Amount and wear

All item stacks have an amount between 0 to 65535. It is 1 by default. Tool item stacks can not have an amount greater than 1.

Tools use a wear (=damage) value ranging from 0 to 65535. The value 0 is the default and used is for unworn tools. The values 1 to 65535 are used for worn tools, where a higher value stands for a higher wear. Non-tools always have a wear value of 0.

Item formats

Items and item stacks can exist in three formats: Serializes, table format and ItemStack.

Serialized

This is called "stackstring" or "itemstring". It is a simple string with 1-3 components: the full item identifier, an optional amount and an optional wear value. Syntax:

<identifier> [<amount>[ <wear>]]

Examples:

  • #'default:apple': 1 apple
  • #'default:dirt 5': 5 dirt
  • #'default:pick_stone': a new stone pickaxe
  • #'default:pick_wood 1 21323': a wooden pickaxe, ca. 1/3 worn out

Table format

Examples:

5 dirt nodes:

{name="default:dirt", count=5, wear=0, metadata=""}

A wooden pick about 1/3 worn out:

{name="default:pick_wood", count=1, wear=21323, metadata=""}

An apple:

{name="default:apple", count=1, wear=0, metadata=""}

ItemStack

A native C++ format with many helper methods. Useful for converting between formats. See the Class reference section for details.

When an item must be passed to a function, it can usually be in any of these formats.

Groups

In a number of places, there is a group table. Groups define the properties of a thing (item, node, armor of entity, capabilities of tool) in such a way that the engine and other mods can can interact with the thing without actually knowing what the thing is.

Usage

Groups are stored in a table, having the group names with keys and the group ratings as values. For example:

groups = {crumbly=3, soil=1}
-- ^ Default dirt

groups = {crumbly=2, soil=1, level=2, outerspace=1}
-- ^ A more special dirt-kind of thing

Groups always have a rating associated with them. If there is no useful meaning for a rating for an enabled group, it shall be 1.

When not defined, the rating of a group defaults to 0. Thus when you read groups, you must interpret nil and 0 as the same value, 0.

You can read the rating of a group for an item or a node by using

minetest.get_item_group(itemname, groupname)

Groups of items

Groups of items can define what kind of an item it is (e.g. wool).

Groups of nodes

In addition to the general item things, groups are used to define whether a node is destroyable and how long it takes to destroy by a tool.

Groups of entities

For entities, groups are, as of now, used only for calculating damage. The rating is the percentage of damage caused by tools with this damage group. See "Entity damage mechanism".

object.get_armor_groups() --> a group-rating table (e.g. {fleshy=100})
object.set_armor_groups({fleshy=30, cracky=80})

Groups of tools

Groups in tools define which groups of nodes and entities they are effective towards.

Groups in crafting recipes

An example: Make meat soup from any meat, any water and any bowl:

{
    output = 'food:meat_soup_raw',
    recipe = {
        {'group:meat'},
        {'group:water'},
        {'group:bowl'},
    },
    -- preserve = {'group:bowl'}, -- Not implemented yet (TODO)
}

Another example: Make red wool from white wool and red dye:

{
    type = 'shapeless',
    output = 'wool:red',
    recipe = {'wool:white', 'group:dye,basecolor_red'},
}

Special groups

  • #immortal: Disables the group damage system for an entity
  • #punch_operable: For entities; disables the regular damage mechanism for players punching it by hand or a non-tool item, so that it can do something else than take damage.
  • #level: Can be used to give an additional sense of progression in the game.
    • A larger level will cause e.g. a weapon of a lower level make much less damage, and get worn out much faster, or not be able to get drops from destroyed nodes.
    • #0 is something that is directly accessible at the start of gameplay
    • There is no upper limit
  • #dig_immediate: (player can always pick up node without reducing tool wear)
    • #2: the node always gets the digging time 0.5 seconds (rail, sign)
    • #3: the node always gets the digging time 0 seconds (torch)
  • #disable_jump: Player (and possibly other things) cannot jump from node
  • #fall_damage_add_percent: damage speed = speed * (1 + value/100)
  • #bouncy: value is bounce speed in percent
  • #falling_node: if there is no walkable block under the node it will fall
  • #attached_node: if the node under it is not a walkable block the node will be dropped as an item. If the node is wallmounted the wallmounted direction is checked.
  • #soil: saplings will grow on nodes in this group
  • #connect_to_raillike: makes nodes of raillike drawtype with same group value connect to each other
  • #slippery: Players and items will slide on the node. Slipperiness rises steadily with slippery value, starting at 1.

Known damage and digging time defining groups

  • #crumbly: dirt, sand
  • #cracky: tough but crackable stuff like stone.
  • #snappy: something that can be cut using fine tools; e.g. leaves, small plants, wire, sheets of metal
  • #choppy: something that can be cut using force; e.g. trees, wooden planks
  • #fleshy: Living things like animals and the player. This could imply some blood effects when hitting.
  • #explody: Especially prone to explosions
  • #oddly_breakable_by_hand: Can be added to nodes that shouldn't logically be breakable by the hand but are. Somewhat similar to dig_immediate, but times are more like {[1]=3.50,[2]=2.00,[3]=0.70} and this does not override the speed of a tool if the tool can dig at a faster speed than this suggests for the hand.

Examples of custom groups

Item groups are often used for defining, well, groups of items.

  • #meat: any meat-kind of a thing (rating might define the size or healing ability or be irrelevant -- it is not defined as of yet)
  • #eatable: anything that can be eaten. Rating might define HP gain in half hearts.
  • #flammable: can be set on fire. Rating might define the intensity of the fire, affecting e.g. the speed of the spreading of an open fire.
  • #wool: any wool (any origin, any color)
  • #metal: any metal
  • #weapon: any weapon
  • #heavy: anything considerably heavy

Digging time calculation specifics

Groups such as crumbly, cracky and snappy are used for this purpose. Rating is 1, 2 or 3. A higher rating for such a group implies faster digging time.

The level group is used to limit the toughness of nodes a tool can dig and to scale the digging times / damage to a greater extent.

Please do understand this, otherwise you cannot use the system to it's full potential.

Tools define their properties by a list of parameters for groups. They cannot dig other groups; thus it is important to use a standard bunch of groups to enable interaction with tools.

Tools definition

Tools define:

  • Full punch interval
  • Maximum drop level
  • #For an arbitrary list of groups:
    • #Uses (until the tool breaks)
      • #Maximum level (usually 0, 1, 2 or 3)
      • Digging times
      • Damage groups

Full punch interval

When used as a weapon, the tool will do full damage if this time is spent between punches. If e.g. half the time is spent, the tool will do half damage.

Maximum drop level

Suggests the maximum level of node, when dug with the tool, that will drop it's useful item. (e.g. iron ore to drop a lump of iron).

This is not automated; it is the responsibility of the node definition to implement this.

Uses

Determines how many uses the tool has when it is used for digging a node, of this group, of the maximum level. For lower leveled nodes, the use count is multiplied by 3^leveldiff.

  • #uses=10, leveldiff=0: actual uses: 10
  • #uses=10, leveldiff=1: actual uses: 30
  • #uses=10, leveldiff=2: actual uses: 90

Maximum level

Tells what is the maximum level of a node of this group that the tool will be able to dig.

Digging times

List of digging times for different ratings of the group, for nodes of the maximum level.

For example, as a Lua table, times={2=2.00, 3=0.70}. This would result in the tool to be able to dig nodes that have a rating of 2 or 3 for this group, and unable to dig the rating 1, which is the toughest. Unless there is a matching group that enables digging otherwise.

If the result digging time is 0, a delay of 0.15 seconds is added between digging nodes; If the player releases LMB after digging, this delay is set to 0, i.e. players can more quickly click the nodes away instead of holding LMB.

Damage groups

List of damage for groups of entities. See "Entity damage mechanism".

Example definition of the capabilities of a tool

tool_capabilities = {
    full_punch_interval=1.5,
    max_drop_level=1,
    groupcaps={
        crumbly={maxlevel=2, uses=20, times={[1]=1.60, [2]=1.20, [3]=0.80}}
    }
    damage_groups = {fleshy=2},
}

This makes the tool be able to dig nodes that fulfil both of these:

  • #Have the crumbly group
  • #Have a level group less or equal to 2

Table of resulting digging times:

crumbly        0     1     2     3     4  <- level
     ->  0     -     -     -     -     -
         1  0.80  1.60  1.60     -     -
         2  0.60  1.20  1.20     -     -
         3  0.40  0.80  0.80     -     -

level diff:    2     1     0    -1    -2

Table of resulting tool uses:

->  0     -     -     -     -     -
    1   180    60    20     -     -
    2   180    60    20     -     -
    3   180    60    20     -     -

Notes:

  • #At crumbly==0, the node is not diggable.
  • #At crumbly==3, the level difference digging time divider kicks in and makes easy nodes to be quickly breakable.
  • #At level > 2, the node is not diggable, because it's level > maxlevel

Entity damage mechanism

Damage calculation:

damage = 0
foreach group in cap.damage_groups:
    damage += cap.damage_groups[group] * limit(actual_interval /
           cap.full_punch_interval, 0.0, 1.0)
        * (object.armor_groups[group] / 100.0)
        -- Where object.armor_groups[group] is 0 for inexistent values
return damage

Client predicts damage based on damage groups. Because of this, it is able to give an immediate response when an entity is damaged or dies; the response is pre-defined somehow (e.g. by defining a sprite animation) (not implemented; TODO). Currently a smoke puff will appear when an entity dies.

The group immortal completely disables normal damage.

Entities can define a special armor group, which is punch_operable. This group disables the regular damage mechanism for players punching it by hand or a non-tool item, so that it can do something else than take damage.

On the Lua side, every punch calls:

entity:on_punch(puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, direction, damage)

This should never be called directly, because damage is usually not handled by the entity itself.

  • #puncher is the object performing the punch. Can be nil. Should never be accessed unless absolutely required, to encourage interoperability.
  • #time_from_last_punch is time from last punch (by puncher) or nil.
  • #tool_capabilities can be nil.
  • #direction is a unit vector, pointing from the source of the punch to the punched object.
  • #damage damage that will be done to entity Return value of this function will determine if damage is done by this function (retval true) or shall be done by engine (retval false)

To punch an entity/object in Lua, call:

object:punch(puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, direction)

  • Return value is tool wear.
  • Parameters are equal to the above callback.
  • #If direction equals nil and puncher does not equal nil, direction will be automatically filled in based on the location of puncher.

Node Metadata

The instance of a node in the world normally only contains the three values mentioned in "Nodes". However, it is possible to insert extra data into a node. It is called "node metadata"; See NodeMetaRef.

Node metadata contains two things:

  • A key-value store
  • An inventory

Some of the values in the key-value store are handled specially:

  • #formspec: Defines a right-click inventory menu. See "Formspec".
  • #infotext: Text shown on the screen when the node is pointed at

Example stuff:

local meta = minetest.get_meta(pos)
meta:set_string("formspec",
        "size[8,9]"..
        "list[context;main;0,0;8,4;]"..
        "list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]")
meta:set_string("infotext", "Chest");
local inv = meta:get_inventory()
inv:set_size("main", 8*4)
print(dump(meta:to_table()))
meta:from_table({
    inventory = {
        main = {[1] = "default:dirt", [2] = "", [3] = "", [4] = "",
                [5] = "", [6] = "", [7] = "", [8] = "", [9] = "",
                [10] = "", [11] = "", [12] = "", [13] = "",
                [14] = "default:cobble", [15] = "", [16] = "", [17] = "",
                [18] = "", [19] = "", [20] = "default:cobble", [21] = "",
                [22] = "", [23] = "", [24] = "", [25] = "", [26] = "",
                [27] = "", [28] = "", [29] = "", [30] = "", [31] = "",
                [32] = ""}
    },
    fields = {
        formspec = "size[8,9]list[context;main;0,0;8,4;]list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]",
        infotext = "Chest"
    }
})

Item Metadata

Item stacks can store metadata too. See ItemStackMetaRef.

Item metadata only contains a key-value store.

Some of the values in the key-value store are handled specially:

  • #description: Set the item stack's description. Defaults to idef.description.
  • #color: A ColorString, which sets the stack's color.
  • #palette_index: If the item has a palette, this is used to get the current color from the palette.

Example stuff:

local meta = stack:get_meta()
meta:set_string("key", "value")
print(dump(meta:to_table()))

Formspec

Formspec defines a menu. Currently not much else than inventories are supported. It is a string, with a somewhat strange format.

Spaces and newlines can be inserted between the blocks, as is used in the examples.

WARNING: Minetest allows you to add elements to every single formspec instance using player:set_formspec_prepend(), which may be the reason backgrounds are appearing when you don't expect them to. See no_prepend[]

Examples

Chest

size[8,9]
list[context;main;0,0;8,4;]
list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]

Furnace

size[8,9]
list[context;fuel;2,3;1,1;]
list[context;src;2,1;1,1;]
list[context;dst;5,1;2,2;]
list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]

Minecraft-like player inventory

size[8,7.5]
image[1,0.6;1,2;player.png]
list[current_player;main;0,3.5;8,4;]
list[current_player;craft;3,0;3,3;]
list[current_player;craftpreview;7,1;1,1;]

Elements

size[<W>,<H>,<fixed_size>]

  • Define the size of the menu in inventory slots
  • #fixed_size: true/false (optional)
  • #deprecated: invsize[<W>,<H>;]

position[<X>,<Y>]

  • #Must be used after size element.
  • #Defines the position on the game window of the formspec's anchor point.
  • For X and Y, 0.0 and 1.0 represent opposite edges of the game window, for example:
    • [0.0, 0.0] sets the position to the top left corner of the game window.
    • [1.0, 1.0] sets the position to the bottom right of the game window.
  • Defaults to the center of the game window [0.5, 0.5].

anchor[<X>,<Y>]

  • #Must be used after both size and position (if present) elements.
  • Defines the location of the anchor point within the formspec.
  • For X and Y, 0.0 and 1.0 represent opposite edges of the formspec, for example:
    • [0.0, 1.0] sets the anchor to the bottom left corner of the formspec.
    • [1.0, 0.0] sets the anchor to the top right of the formspec.
  • Defaults to the center of the formspec [0.5, 0.5].

  • #

    position and anchor elements need suitable values to avoid a formspec extending off the game window due to particular game window sizes.

no_prepend[]

  • #Must be used after the size, position, and anchor elements (if present).
  • Disables player:set_formspec_prepend() from applying to this formspec.

container[<X>,<Y>]

  • Start of a container block, moves all physical elements in the container by (X, Y).
  • #Must have matching container_end
  • Containers can be nested, in which case the offsets are added (child containers are relative to parent containers)

container_end[]

  • End of a container, following elements are no longer relative to this container.

list[<inventory location>;<list name>;<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;]

  • Show an inventory list

list[<inventory location>;<list name>;<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<starting item index>]

  • Show an inventory list

listring[<inventory location>;<list name>]

  • Allows to create a ring of inventory lists
  • Shift-clicking on items in one element of the ring will send them to the next inventory list inside the ring
  • The first occurrence of an element inside the ring will determine the inventory where items will be sent to

listring[]

  • #Shorthand for doing listring[<inventory location>;<list name>] for the last two inventory lists added by list[...]

listcolors[<slot_bg_normal>;<slot_bg_hover>]

  • #Sets background color of slots as ColorString
  • Sets background color of slots on mouse hovering

listcolors[<slot_bg_normal>;<slot_bg_hover>;<slot_border>]

  • #Sets background color of slots as ColorString
  • Sets background color of slots on mouse hovering
  • Sets color of slots border

listcolors[<slot_bg_normal>;<slot_bg_hover>;<slot_border>;<tooltip_bgcolor>;<tooltip_fontcolor>]

  • #Sets background color of slots as ColorString
  • Sets background color of slots on mouse hovering
  • Sets color of slots border
  • Sets default background color of tooltips
  • Sets default font color of tooltips

tooltip[<gui_element_name>;<tooltip_text>;<bgcolor>;<fontcolor>]

  • Adds tooltip for an element
  • #<bgcolor> tooltip background color as ColorString (optional)
  • #<fontcolor> tooltip font color as ColorString (optional)

image[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>]

  • Show an image
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

item_image[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<item name>]

  • Show an inventory image of registered item/node
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

bgcolor[<color>;<fullscreen>]

  • #Sets background color of formspec as ColorString
  • #If true, the background color is drawn fullscreen (does not effect the size of the formspec).

background[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>]

  • Use a background. Inventory rectangles are not drawn then.
  • Position and size units are inventory slots
  • Example for formspec 8x4 in 16x resolution: image shall be sized 8 times 16px times 4 times 16px.

background[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<auto_clip>]

  • Use a background. Inventory rectangles are not drawn then.
  • Position and size units are inventory slots
  • Example for formspec 8x4 in 16x resolution: image shall be sized 8 times 16px times 4 times 16px
  • #If true the background is clipped to formspec size (x and y are used as offset values, w and h are ignored)

pwdfield[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>]

  • Textual password style field; will be sent to server when a button is clicked
  • When enter is pressed in field, fields.key_enter_field will be sent with the name of this field.
  • #x and y position the field relative to the top left of the menu
  • #w and h are the size of the field
  • #Fields are a set height, but will be vertically centred on h
  • Position and size units are inventory slots
  • #name is the name of the field as returned in fields to on_receive_fields
  • #label, if not blank, will be text printed on the top left above the field
  • See field_close_on_enter to stop enter closing the formspec

field[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>;<default>]

  • Textual field; will be sent to server when a button is clicked
  • #When enter is pressed in field, fields.key_enter_field will be sent with the name of this field.
  • #x and y position the field relative to the top left of the menu
  • #w and h are the size of the field
  • #Fields are a set height, but will be vertically centred on h
  • Position and size units are inventory slots
  • #name is the name of the field as returned in fields to on_receive_fields
  • #label, if not blank, will be text printed on the top left above the field
  • #default is the default value of the field
    • #default may contain variable references such as ${text}' which will fill the value from the metadata value text
    • Note: no extra text or more than a single variable is supported ATM.
  • #See field_close_on_enter to stop enter closing the formspec

field[<name>;<label>;<default>]

  • As above, but without position/size units
  • #When enter is pressed in field, fields.key_enter_field will be sent with the name of this field.
  • Special field for creating simple forms, such as sign text input
  • #Must be used without a size[] element
  • A "Proceed" button will be added automatically
  • #See field_close_on_enter to stop enter closing the formspec

field_close_on_enter[<name>;<close_on_enter>]

  • is the name of the field
  • if is false, pressing enter in the field will submit the form but not close it.
  • defaults to true when not specified (ie: no tag for a field)

textarea[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>;<default>]

  • Same as fields above, but with multi-line input
  • if the text overflows a vertical scrollbar is added
  • if the name is empty the textarea is readonly, the label is not displayed.

label[<X>,<Y>;<label>]

  • #x and y work as per field
  • #label is the text on the label
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

vertlabel[<X>,<Y>;<label>]

  • Textual label drawn vertically
  • #x and y work as per field
  • #label is the text on the label
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>]

  • Clickable button. When clicked, fields will be sent.
  • #x, y and name work as per field
  • #w and h are the size of the button
  • #Fixed button height. It will be vertically centred on h
  • #label is the text on the button
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>]

  • #x, y, w, h, and name work as per button
  • #texture name is the filename of an image
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>;<noclip>;<drawborder>;<pressed texture name>]

  • #x, y, w, h, and name work as per button
  • #texture name is the filename of an image
  • Position and size units are inventory slots
  • #noclip=true means the image button doesn't need to be within specified formsize.
  • #drawborder: draw button border or not
  • #pressed texture name is the filename of an image on pressed state

item_image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<item name>;<name>;<label>]

  • #x, y, w, h, name and label work as per button
  • #item name is the registered name of an item/node, tooltip will be made out of its description to override it use tooltip element
  • Position and size units are inventory slots

button_exit[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>]

  • When clicked, fields will be sent and the form will quit.

image_button_exit[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>]

  • When clicked, fields will be sent and the form will quit.

textlist[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<listelem 1>,<listelem 2>,...,<listelem n>]

  • Scrollable item list showing arbitrary text elements
  • #x and y position the itemlist relative to the top left of the menu
  • #w and h are the size of the itemlist
  • #name fieldname sent to server on doubleclick value is current selected element.
  • #listelements can be prepended by #color in hexadecimal format RRGGBB (only).
    • if you want a listelement to start with "#" write "##".

textlist[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<listelem 1>,<listelem 2>,...,<listelem n>;<selected idx>;<transparent>]

  • Scrollable itemlist showing arbitrary text elements
  • #x and y position the item list relative to the top left of the menu
  • #w and h are the size of the item list
  • #name fieldname sent to server on doubleclick value is current selected element.
  • #listelements can be prepended by #RRGGBB (only) in hexadecimal format
    • if you want a listelement to start with "#" write "##"
  • Index to be selected within textlist
  • #true/false: draw transparent background
  • #See also minetest.explode_textlist_event (main menu: engine.explode_textlist_event).

tabheader[<X>,<Y>;<name>;<caption 1>,<caption 2>,...,<caption n>;<current_tab>;<transparent>;<draw_border>]

  • Show a tabheader at specific position (ignores formsize)
  • #x and y position the itemlist relative to the top left of the menu
  • #name fieldname data is transferred to Lua
  • #caption 1...: name shown on top of tab
  • #current_tab: index of selected tab 1...
  • #transparent (optional): show transparent
  • #draw_border (optional): draw border

box[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<color>]

  • Simple colored semitransparent box
  • #x and y position the box relative to the top left of the menu
  • #w and h are the size of box
  • #color is color specified as a ColorString
  • Show a dropdown field
  • Important note: There are two different operation modes:
    1. handle directly on change (only changed dropdown is submitted)
    2. read the value on pressing a button (all dropdown values are available)
  • #x and y position of dropdown
  • Width of dropdown
  • Fieldname data is transferred to Lua
  • Items to be shown in dropdown
  • Index of currently selected dropdown item

checkbox[<X>,<Y>;<name>;<label>;<selected>]

  • Show a checkbox
  • #x and y: position of checkbox
  • #name fieldname data is transferred to Lua
  • #label to be shown left of checkbox
  • #selected (optional): true/false

scrollbar[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<orientation>;<name>;<value>]

  • Show a scrollbar
  • There are two ways to use it:
    1. handle the changed event (only changed scrollbar is available)
    2. read the value on pressing a button (all scrollbars are available)
  • #x and y: position of trackbar
  • #w and h: width and height
  • #orientation: vertical/horizontal
  • Fieldname data is transferred to Lua
  • #Value this trackbar is set to (0-1000)
  • #See also minetest.explode_scrollbar_event (main menu: engine.explode_scrollbar_event).

table[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<cell 1>,<cell 2>,...,<cell n>;<selected idx>]

  • #Show scrollable table using options defined by the previous tableoptions[]
  • #Displays cells as defined by the previous tablecolumns[]
  • #x and y: position the itemlist relative to the top left of the menu
  • #w and h are the size of the itemlist
  • #name: fieldname sent to server on row select or doubleclick
  • #cell 1...cell n: cell contents given in row-major order
  • #selected idx: index of row to be selected within table (first row = 1)
  • #See also minetest.explode_table_event (main menu: engine.explode_table_event).

tableoptions[<opt 1>;<opt 2>;...]

  • #Sets options for table[]
  • #color=#RRGGBB
    • #default text color (ColorString), defaults to #FFFFFF
  • #background=#RRGGBB
    • #table background color (ColorString), defaults to #000000
  • #border=<true/false>
    • #should the table be drawn with a border? (default: true)
  • #highlight=#RRGGBB
    • #highlight background color (ColorString), defaults to #466432
  • #highlight_text=#RRGGBB
    • #highlight text color (ColorString), defaults to #FFFFFF
  • #opendepth=<value>
    • #all subtrees up to depth < value are open (default value = 0)
    • only useful when there is a column of type "tree"

tablecolumns[<type 1>,<opt 1a>,<opt 1b>,...;<type 2>,<opt 2a>,<opt 2b>;...]

  • #Sets columns for table[]
  • #Types: text, image, color, indent, tree
    • #text: show cell contents as text
    • #image: cell contents are an image index, use column options to define images.
    • #color: cell contents are a ColorString and define color of following cell.
    • #indent: cell contents are a number and define indentation of following cell.
    • #tree: same as indent, but user can open and close subtrees (treeview-like).
  • #Column options:
    • #align=<value>
      • #for text and image: content alignment within cells. Available values: left (default), center, right, inline
    • #width=<value>
      • #for text and image: minimum width in em (default: 0)
      • #for indent and tree: indent width in em (default: 1.5)
    • #padding=<value>: padding left of the column, in em (default 0.5). Exception: defaults to 0 for indent columns
    • #tooltip=<value>: tooltip text (default: empty)
    • #image column options:
      • #0=<value> sets image for image index 0
      • #1=<value> sets image for image index 1
      • #2=<value> sets image for image index 2
      • #and so on; defined indices need not be contiguous empty or non-numeric cells are treated as 0.
    • #color column options:
      • #span=<value>: number of following columns to affect (default: infinite).

Note: do not use a element name starting with key_; those names are reserved to pass key press events to formspec!

Inventory locations

  • #"context": Selected node metadata (deprecated: "current_name")
  • #"current_player": Player to whom the menu is shown
  • #"player:<name>": Any player
  • #"nodemeta:<X>,<Y>,<Z>": Any node metadata
  • #"detached:<name>": A detached inventory

Player Inventory lists

  • #main: list containing the default inventory
  • #craft: list containing the craft input
  • #craftpreview: list containing the craft output
  • #hand: list containing an override for the empty hand

ColorString

#RGB defines a color in hexadecimal format.

#RGBA defines a color in hexadecimal format and alpha channel.

#RRGGBB defines a color in hexadecimal format.

#RRGGBBAA defines a color in hexadecimal format and alpha channel.

Named colors are also supported and are equivalent to CSS Color Module Level 4. To specify the value of the alpha channel, append #AA to the end of the color name (e.g. colorname#08). For named colors the hexadecimal string representing the alpha value must (always) be two hexadecimal digits.

ColorSpec

A ColorSpec specifies a 32-bit color. It can be written in either: table form, each element ranging from 0..255 (a, if absent, defaults to 255): colorspec = {a=255, r=0, g=255, b=0} numerical form, the raw integer value of an ARGB8 quad: colorspec = 0xFF00FF00 or string form, a ColorString (defined above): colorspec = "green"

Escape sequences

Most text can contain escape sequences, that can for example color the text. There are a few exceptions: tab headers, dropdowns and vertical labels can't. The following functions provide escape sequences:

  • #minetest.get_color_escape_sequence(color):
    • #color is a ColorString
    • #The escape sequence sets the text color to color
  • #minetest.colorize(color, message):
    • #Equivalent to: minetest.get_color_escape_sequence(color) .. message .. minetest.get_color_escape_sequence("#ffffff")
  • #minetest.get_background_escape_sequence(color)
    • #color is a ColorString
    • #The escape sequence sets the background of the whole text element to color. Only defined for item descriptions and tooltips.
  • #minetest.strip_foreground_colors(str)
    • #Removes foreground colors added by get_color_escape_sequence.
  • #minetest.strip_background_colors(str)
    • #Removes background colors added by get_background_escape_sequence.
  • #minetest.strip_colors(str)
    • Removes all color escape sequences.

Spatial Vectors

For the following functions, v, v1, v2 are vectors, p1, p2 are positions:

  • #vector.new(a[, b, c]):
    • Returns a vector.
    • #A copy of a if a is a vector.
    • #{x = a, y = b, z = c}, if all of a, b, c are defined numbers.
  • #vector.direction(p1, p2):
    • #Returns a vector of length 1 with direction p1 to p2.
    • #If p1 and p2 are identical, returns {x = 0, y = 0, z = 0}.
  • #vector.distance(p1, p2):
    • #Returns zero or a positive number, the distance between p1 and p2.
  • #vector.length(v):
    • #Returns zero or a positive number, the length of vector v.
  • #vector.normalize(v):
    • #Returns a vector of length 1 with direction of vector v.
    • #If v has zero length, returns {x = 0, y = 0, z = 0}.
  • #vector.floor(v):
    • Returns a vector, each dimension rounded down.
  • #vector.round(v):
    • Returns a vector, each dimension rounded to nearest integer.
  • #vector.apply(v, func):
    • #Returns a vector where the function func has been applied to each component.
  • #vector.equals(v1, v2):
    • #Returns a boolean, true if the vectors are identical.
  • #vector.sort(v1, v2):
    • #Returns in order minp, maxp vectors of the cuboid defined by v1, v2.

For the following functions x can be either a vector or a number:

  • #vector.add(v, x):
    • Returns a vector.
  • #vector.subtract(v, x):
    • Returns a vector.
  • #vector.multiply(v, x):
    • Returns a scaled vector or Schur product.
  • #vector.divide(v, x):
    • Returns a scaled vector or Schur quotient.

Helper functions

  • #dump2(obj, name, dumped): returns a string which makes obj human-readable, handles reference loops.
    • #obj: arbitrary variable
    • #name: string, default: "_"
    • #dumped: table, default: {}
  • #dump(obj, dumped): returns a string which makes obj human-readable
    • #obj: arbitrary variable
    • #dumped: table, default: {}
  • #math.hypot(x, y)
    • Get the hypotenuse of a triangle with legs x and y. Useful for distance calculation.
  • #math.sign(x, tolerance): returns -1, 0 or 1
    • Get the sign of a number.
    • #tolerance: number, default: 0.0
    • #If the absolute value of x is within the tolerance or x is NaN, 0 is returned.
  • #string.split(str, separator, include_empty, max_splits, sep_is_pattern)
    • #separator: string, default: ","
    • #include_empty: boolean, default: false
    • #max_splits: number, if it's positive, splits aren't limited, default: -1
    • #sep_is_pattern: boolean, it specifies whether separator is a plain string or a pattern (regex), default: false
    • #e.g. "a,b":split"," returns {"a","b"}
  • #string:trim(): returns the string without whitespace pre- and suffixes
    • #e.g. "\n \t\tfoo bar\t ":trim() returns "foo bar"
  • #minetest.wrap_text(str, limit, as_table): returns a string or table
    • Adds newlines to the string to keep it within the specified character limit
    • Note that the returned lines may be longer than the limit since it only splits at word borders.
    • #limit: number, maximal amount of characters in one line
    • #as_table: boolean, if set to true, a table of lines instead of a string is returned, default: false
  • #minetest.pos_to_string(pos, decimal_places): returns string "(X,Y,Z)"
    • #pos: table {x=X, y=Y, z=Z}
    • #Converts the position pos to a human-readable, printable string
    • #decimal_places: number, if specified, the x, y and z values of the position are rounded to the given decimal place.
  • #minetest.string_to_pos(string): returns a position or nil
    • Same but in reverse.
    • If the string can't be parsed to a position, nothing is returned.
  • #minetest.string_to_area("(X1, Y1, Z1) (X2, Y2, Z2)"): returns two positions
    • Converts a string representing an area box into two positions
  • #minetest.formspec_escape(string): returns a string
    • escapes the characters "[", "]", "\", "," and ";", which can not be used in formspecs.
  • #minetest.is_yes(arg)
    • returns true if passed 'y', 'yes', 'true' or a number that isn't zero.
  • #minetest.get_us_time()
    • returns time with microsecond precision. May not return wall time.
  • #table.copy(table): returns a table
    • #returns a deep copy of table
  • #minetest.pointed_thing_to_face_pos(placer, pointed_thing): returns a position.
    • returns the exact position on the surface of a pointed node

Translations

Texts can be translated client-side with the help of minetest.translate and translation files.

Translating a string

Two functions are provided to translate strings: minetest.translate and minetest.get_translator.

  • #

    minetest.get_translator(textdomain) is a simple wrapper around minetest.translate, and minetest.get_translator(textdomain)(str, ...) is equivalent to minetest.translate(textdomain, str, ...). It is intended to be used in the following way, so that it avoids verbose repetitions of minetest.translate:

    local S = minetest.get_translator(textdomain) S(str, ...)

As an extra commodity, if textdomain is nil, it is assumed to be "" instead.

  • #minetest.translate(textdomain, str, ...) translates the string str with the given textdomain for disambiguation. The textdomain must match the textdomain specified in the translation file in order to get the string translated. This can be used so that a string is translated differently in different contexts. It is advised to use the name of the mod as textdomain whenever possible, to avoid clashes with other mods. This function must be given a number of arguments equal to the number of arguments the translated string expects. Arguments are literal strings -- they will not be translated, so if you want them to be, they need to come as outputs of minetest.translate as well.

For instance, suppose we want to translate "@1 Wool" with "@1" being replaced by the translation of "Red". We can do the following:

local S = minetest.get_translator()
S("@1 Wool", S("Red"))

This will be displayed as "Red Wool" on old clients and on clients that do not have localization enabled. However, if we have for instance a translation file named wool.fr.tr containing the following:

@1 Wool=Laine @1
Red=Rouge

this will be displayed as "Laine Rouge" on clients with a French locale.

Operations on translated strings

The output of minetest.translate is a string, with escape sequences adding additional information to that string so that it can be translated on the different clients. In particular, you can't expect operations like string.length to work on them like you would expect them to, or string.gsub to work in the expected manner. However, string concatenation will still work as expected (note that you should only use this for things like formspecs; do not translate sentences by breaking them into parts; arguments should be used instead), and operations such as minetest.colorize which are also concatenation.

Translation file format

A translation file has the suffix .[lang].tr, where [lang] is the language it corresponds to. The file should be a text file, with the following format:

  • #Lines beginning with # textdomain: (the space is significant) can be used to specify the text domain of all following translations in the file.
  • All other empty lines or lines beginning with # are ignored.
  • #Other lines should be in the format original=translated. Both original and translated can contain escape sequences beginning with @ to insert arguments, literal @, = or newline (See ### Escapes below). There must be no extraneous whitespace around the = or at the beginning or the end of the line.

Escapes

Strings that need to be translated can contain several escapes, preceded by @.

  • @@ acts as a literal @.
  • #@n, where n is a digit between 1 and 9, is an argument for the translated string that will be inlined when translation. Due to how translations are implemented, the original translation string must have its arguments in increasing order, without gaps or repetitions, starting from 1.
  • @= acts as a literal =. It is not required in strings given to minetest.translate, but is in translation files to avoid being confused with the = separating the original from the translation.
  • #@\n (where the \n is a literal newline) acts as a literal newline. As with @=, this escape is not required in strings given to minetest.translate, but is in translation files.
  • #@n acts as a literal newline as well.

minetest namespace reference

Utilities

  • #minetest.get_current_modname(): returns the currently loading mod's name, when loading a mod.
  • #minetest.get_modpath(modname): returns e.g. "/home/user/.minetest/usermods/modname".
    • #Useful for loading additional .lua modules or static data from mod
  • #minetest.get_modnames(): returns a list of installed mods
    • Return a list of installed mods, sorted alphabetically
  • #minetest.get_worldpath(): returns e.g. "/home/user/.minetest/world"
    • Useful for storing custom data
  • #minetest.is_singleplayer()
  • #minetest.features: Table containing API feature flags
    {
       glasslike_framed = true,
       nodebox_as_selectionbox = true,
       chat_send_player_param3 = true,
       get_all_craft_recipes_works = true,
       use_texture_alpha = true,
    -- ^ The transparency channel of textures can optionally be used on nodes
       no_legacy_abms = true,
    -- ^ Tree and grass ABMs are no longer done from C++
       texture_names_parens = true,
    -- ^ Texture grouping is possible using parentheses
       area_store_custom_ids = true,
    -- ^ Unique Area ID for AreaStore:insert_area
       add_entity_with_staticdata = true,
    -- ^ add_entity supports passing initial staticdata to on_activate
       no_chat_message_prediction = true,
    -- ^ Chat messages are no longer predicted
       object_use_texture_alpha = true
    -- ^ The transparency channel of textures can optionally be used on
    --   objects (ie: players and lua entities)
    }
    
    • #minetest.has_feature(arg): returns boolean, missing_features
    • #arg: string or table in format {foo=true, bar=true}
    • #missing_features: {foo=true, bar=true}
    • #minetest.get_player_information(player_name):
    • #Returns a table containing information about a player. Example return value:
      {
          address = "127.0.0.1",     -- IP address of client
          ip_version = 4,            -- IPv4 / IPv6
          min_rtt = 0.01,            -- minimum round trip time
          max_rtt = 0.2,             -- maximum round trip time
          avg_rtt = 0.02,            -- average round trip time
          min_jitter = 0.01,         -- minimum packet time jitter
          max_jitter = 0.5,          -- maximum packet time jitter
          avg_jitter = 0.03,         -- average packet time jitter
          connection_uptime = 200,   -- seconds since client connected
          protocol_version = 32,     -- protocol version used by client
          -- following information is available on debug build only!!!
          -- DO NOT USE IN MODS
          --ser_vers = 26,             -- serialization version used by client
          --major = 0,                 -- major version number
          --minor = 4,                 -- minor version number
          --patch = 10,                -- patch version number
          --vers_string = "0.4.9-git", -- full version string
          --state = "Active"           -- current client state
      }
      
      • #minetest.mkdir(path): returns success.
        • #Creates a directory specified by path, creating parent directories if they don't exist.
      • #minetest.get_dir_list(path, [is_dir]): returns list of entry names
        • is_dir is one of:
      • nil: return all entries,
      • true: return only subdirectory names, or
      • false: return only file names.
      • #minetest.safe_file_write(path, content): returns boolean indicating success
        • #Replaces contents of file at path with new contents in a safe (atomic) way. Use this instead of below code when writing e.g. database files: local f = io.open(path, "wb"); f:write(content); f:close()
      • #minetest.get_version(): returns a table containing components of the engine version. Components:
        • #project: Name of the project, eg, "Minetest"
        • #string: Simple version, eg, "1.2.3-dev"
        • #hash: Full git version (only set if available), eg, "1.2.3-dev-01234567-dirty". Use this for informational purposes only. The information in the returned table does not represent the capabilities of the engine, nor is it reliable or verifiable. Compatible forks will have a different name and version entirely. To check for the presence of engine features, test whether the functions exported by the wanted features exist. For example: if minetest.check_for_falling then ... end.
      • #minetest.sha1(data, [raw]): returns the sha1 hash of data
        • #data: string of data to hash
        • #raw: return raw bytes instead of hex digits, default: false

Logging

  • #minetest.debug(...)
    • #Equivalent to minetest.log(table.concat({...}, "\t"))
  • #minetest.log([level,] text)
    • #level is one of "none", "error", "warning", "action", "info", or "verbose". Default is "none".

Registration functions

Call these functions only at load time!

  • #minetest.register_entity(name, prototype table)
  • #minetest.register_abm(abm definition)
  • #minetest.register_lbm(lbm definition)
  • #minetest.register_node(name, node definition)
  • #minetest.register_tool(name, item definition)
  • #minetest.register_craftitem(name, item definition)
  • #minetest.unregister_item(name)
  • #minetest.register_alias(name, convert_to)
    • Also use this to set the 'mapgen aliases' needed in a game for the core
    • mapgens. See 'Mapgen aliases' section above.
  • #minetest.register_alias_force(name, convert_to)
  • #minetest.register_craft(recipe)
    • Check recipe table syntax for different types below.
  • #minetest.clear_craft(recipe)
    • Will erase existing craft based either on output item or on input recipe.
    • #Specify either output or input only. If you specify both, input will be ignored. For input use the same recipe table syntax as for minetest.register_craft(recipe). For output specify only the item, without a quantity.
    • If no erase candidate could be found, Lua exception will be thrown.
    • Warning! The type field ("shaped","cooking" or any other) will be ignored if the recipe contains output. Erasing is then done independently from the crafting method.
  • #minetest.register_ore(ore definition)
  • #minetest.register_biome(biome definition)
  • #minetest.register_decoration(decoration definition)
  • #minetest.override_item(name, redefinition)
    • Overrides fields of an item registered with register_node/tool/craftitem.
    • Note: Item must already be defined, (opt)depend on the mod defining it.
    • #Example: minetest.override_item("default:mese", {light_source=LIGHT_MAX})
  • #minetest.clear_registered_ores()
  • #minetest.clear_registered_biomes()
  • #minetest.clear_registered_decorations()

Global callback registration functions

Call these functions only at load time!

  • #minetest.register_globalstep(func(dtime))
    • Called every server step, usually interval of 0.1s
  • #minetest.register_on_shutdown(func())
    • Called before server shutdown
    • Warning: If the server terminates abnormally (i.e. crashes), the registered callbacks will likely not be run. Data should be saved at semi-frequent intervals as well as on server shutdown.
  • #minetest.register_on_placenode(func(pos, newnode, placer, oldnode, itemstack, pointed_thing))
    • Called when a node has been placed
    • #If return true no item is taken from itemstack
    • #placer may be any valid ObjectRef or nil.
    • #Not recommended; use on_construct or after_place_node in node definition whenever possible.
  • #minetest.register_on_dignode(func(pos, oldnode, digger))
    • Called when a node has been dug.
    • #Not recommended; Use on_destruct or after_dig_node in node definition whenever possible.
  • #minetest.register_on_punchnode(func(pos, node, puncher, pointed_thing))
    • Called when a node is punched
  • #minetest.register_on_generated(func(minp, maxp, blockseed))
    • Called after generating a piece of world. Modifying nodes inside the area is a bit faster than usually.
  • #minetest.register_on_newplayer(func(ObjectRef))
    • Called after a new player has been created
  • #minetest.register_on_punchplayer(func(player, hitter, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, dir, damage))
    • Called when a player is punched
    • #player - ObjectRef - Player that was punched
    • #hitter - ObjectRef - Player that hit
    • #time_from_last_punch: Meant for disallowing spamming of clicks (can be nil).
    • #tool_capabilities: capability table of used tool (can be nil)
    • #dir: unit vector of direction of punch. Always defined. Points from the puncher to the punched.
    • #damage - number that represents the damage calculated by the engine
    • #should return true to prevent the default damage mechanism
  • #minetest.register_on_player_hpchange(func(player, hp_change, reason), modifier)
    • Called when the player gets damaged or healed
    • #player: ObjectRef of the player
    • #hp_change: the amount of change. Negative when it is damage.
    • #reason: a PlayerHPChangeReason table.
      • #The type field will have one of the following values:
        • #set_hp - A mod or the engine called set_hp without giving a type - use this for custom damage types.
        • #punch - Was punched. reason.object will hold the puncher, or nil if none.
        • #fall
        • #node_damage - damage_per_second from a neighbouring node.
        • #drown
        • #respawn
      • Any of the above types may have additional fields from mods.
      • #reason.from will be mod or engine.
    • #modifier: when true, the function should return the actual hp_change. Note: modifiers only get a temporary hp_change that can be modified by later modifiers. modifiers can return true as a second argument to stop the execution of further functions. Non-modifiers receive the final hp change calculated by the modifiers.
  • #minetest.register_on_dieplayer(func(ObjectRef, reason))
    • Called when a player dies
    • #reason: a PlayerHPChangeReason table, see register_on_player_hpchange
  • #minetest.register_on_respawnplayer(func(ObjectRef))
    • Called when player is to be respawned
    • Called before repositioning of player occurs
    • return true in func to disable regular player placement
  • #minetest.register_on_prejoinplayer(func(name, ip))
    • Called before a player joins the game
    • If it returns a string, the player is disconnected with that string as reason.
  • #minetest.register_on_joinplayer(func(ObjectRef))
    • Called when a player joins the game
  • #minetest.register_on_leaveplayer(func(ObjectRef, timed_out))
    • Called when a player leaves the game
    • #timed_out: True for timeout, false for other reasons.
  • #minetest.register_on_auth_fail(func(name, ip))
    • Called when a client attempts to log into an account but supplies the wrong password.
    • #ip: The IP address of the client.
    • #name: The account the client attempted to log into.
  • #minetest.register_on_cheat(func(ObjectRef, cheat))
    • Called when a player cheats
    • #cheat: {type=<cheat_type>}, where <cheat_type> is one of:
      • #moved_too_fast
      • #interacted_too_far
      • #interacted_while_dead
      • #finished_unknown_dig
      • #dug_unbreakable
      • #dug_too_fast
  • #minetest.register_on_chat_message(func(name, message))
    • Called always when a player says something
    • #Return true to mark the message as handled, which means that it will not be sent to other players.
  • #minetest.register_on_player_receive_fields(func(player, formname, fields))
    • Called when a button is pressed in player's inventory form
    • Newest functions are called first
    • #If function returns true, remaining functions are not called
  • #minetest.register_on_craft(func(itemstack, player, old_craft_grid, craft_inv))
    • #Called when player crafts something
    • #itemstack is the output
    • #old_craft_grid contains the recipe (Note: the one in the inventory is cleared).
    • #craft_inv is the inventory with the crafting grid
    • #Return either an ItemStack, to replace the output, or nil, to not modify it.
  • #minetest.register_craft_predict(func(itemstack, player, old_craft_grid, craft_inv))
    • The same as before, except that it is called before the player crafts, to make craft prediction, and it should not change anything.
  • #minetest.register_on_protection_violation(func(pos, name))
    • #Called by builtin and mods when a player violates protection at a position (eg, digs a node or punches a protected entity).
    • #The registered functions can be called using minetest.record_protection_violation.
    • The provided function should check that the position is protected by the mod calling this function before it prints a message, if it does, to allow for multiple protection mods.
  • #minetest.register_on_item_eat(func(hp_change, replace_with_item, itemstack, user, pointed_thing))
    • #Called when an item is eaten, by minetest.item_eat
    • #Return true or itemstack to cancel the default item eat response (i.e.: hp increase).
  • #minetest.register_on_priv_grant(function(name, granter, priv))
    • #Called when granter grants the priv priv to name.
    • Note that the callback will be called twice if it's done by a player, once with granter being the player name, and again with granter being nil.
  • #minetest.register_on_priv_revoke(function(name, revoker, priv))
    • #Called when revoker revokes the priv priv from name.
    • Note that the callback will be called twice if it's done by a player, once with revoker being the player name, and again with revoker being nil.
  • #minetest.register_can_bypass_userlimit(function(name, ip))
    • #Called when name user connects with ip.
    • #Return true to by pass the player limit
  • #minetest.register_on_modchannel_message(func(channel_name, sender, message))
    • Called when an incoming mod channel message is received
    • You should have joined some channels to receive events.
    • #If message comes from a server mod, sender field is an empty string.

Other registration functions

  • #minetest.register_chatcommand(cmd, chatcommand definition)
    • #Adds definition to minetest.registered_chatcommands
  • #minetest.override_chatcommand(name, redefinition)
    • #Overrides fields of a chatcommand registered with register_chatcommand.
  • #minetest.unregister_chatcommand(name)
    • #Unregisters a chatcommands registered with register_chatcommand.
  • #minetest.register_privilege(name, definition)
    • #definition: "description text"
    • #definition: {description = "description text", give_to_singleplayer = boolean} the default of give_to_singleplayer is true.
    • #To allow players with basic_privs to grant, see basic_privs minetest.conf setting.
    • #on_grant(name, granter_name): Called when given to player name by granter_name. granter_name will be nil if the priv was granted by a mod.
    • #on_revoke(name, revoker_name): Called when taken from player name by revoker_name. revoker_name will be nil if the priv was revoked by a mod
    • Note that the above two callbacks will be called twice if a player is responsible, once with the player name, and then with a nil player name.
    • Return true in the above callbacks to stop register_on_priv_grant or revoke being called.
  • #minetest.register_authentication_handler(authentication handler definition)
    • Registers an auth handler that overrides the builtin one
    • This function can be called by a single mod once only.
  • #minetest.settings: Settings object containing all of the settings from the main config file (minetest.conf).
  • #minetest.setting_get_pos(name): Loads a setting from the main settings and parses it as a position (in the format (1,2,3)). Returns a position or nil.

Authentication

  • #minetest.string_to_privs(str): returns {priv1=true,...}
  • #minetest.privs_to_string(privs): returns "priv1,priv2,..."
    • Convert between two privilege representations
  • #minetest.get_player_privs(name) -> {priv1=true,...}
  • #

    minetest.check_player_privs(player_or_name, ...): returns bool, missing_privs

    • A quickhand for checking privileges.
    • #player_or_name: Either a Player object or the name of a player.
    • ... is either a list of strings, e.g. "priva", "privb" or a table, e.g. { priva = true, privb = true }.
  • #

    minetest.check_password_entry(name, entry, password)

    • Returns true if the "password entry" for a player with name matches given password, false otherwise.
    • #The "password entry" is the password representation generated by the engine as returned as part of a get_auth() call on the auth handler.
    • Only use this function for making it possible to log in via password from external protocols such as IRC, other uses are frowned upon.
  • #minetest.get_password_hash(name, raw_password)
    • Convert a name-password pair to a password hash that Minetest can use.
    • The returned value alone is not a good basis for password checks based on comparing the password hash in the database with the password hash from the function, with an externally provided password, as the hash in the db might use the new SRP verifier format.
    • #For this purpose, use minetest.check_password_entry instead.
  • #

    minetest.get_player_ip(name): returns an IP address string for the player name.

    • The player needs to be online for this to be successful.
  • #

    minetest.get_auth_handler(): Return the currently active auth handler

    • #See the Authentication handler definition
    • #Use this to e.g. get the authentication data for a player: local auth_data = minetest.get_auth_handler().get_auth(playername)
  • #minetest.notify_authentication_modified(name)
    • Must be called by the authentication handler for privilege changes.
    • #name: string; if omitted, all auth data should be considered modified
  • #minetest.set_player_password(name, password_hash): Set password hash of player name.
  • #minetest.set_player_privs(name, {priv1=true,...}): Set privileges of player name.
  • #minetest.auth_reload()
    • #See reload() in authentication handler definition

minetest.set_player_password, minetest_set_player_privs, minetest_get_player_privs and minetest.auth_reload call the authentication handler.

Chat

  • #minetest.chat_send_all(text)
  • #minetest.chat_send_player(name, text)

Environment access

  • #minetest.set_node(pos, node)
  • #minetest.add_node(pos, node): alias tominetest.set_node`
    • #Set node at position pos
    • #node: table {name=string, param1=number, param2=number}
    • #If param1 or param2 is omitted, it's set to 0.
    • #e.g. minetest.set_node({x=0, y=10, z=0}, {name="default:wood"})
  • #minetest.bulk_set_node({pos1, pos2, pos3, ...}, node)
    • Set node on all positions set in the first argument.
    • #e.g. minetest.bulk_set_node({ {x=0, y=1, z=1}, {x=1, y=2, z=2}}, {name="default:stone"})
    • #For node specification or position syntax see minetest.set_node call
    • Faster than set_node due to single call, but still considerably slower than Lua Voxel Manipulators (LVM) for large numbers of nodes. Unlike LVMs, this will call node callbacks. It also allows setting nodes in spread out positions which would cause LVMs to waste memory. For setting a cube, this is 1.3x faster than set_node whereas LVM is 20 times faster.
  • #minetest.swap_node(pos, node)
    • Set node at position, but don't remove metadata
  • #minetest.remove_node(pos)
    • #By default it does the same as minetest.set_node(pos, {name="air"})
  • #minetest.get_node(pos)
    • #Returns the node at the given position as table in the format {name="node_name", param1=0, param2=0}, returns {name="ignore", param1=0, param2=0} for unloaded areas.
  • #minetest.get_node_or_nil(pos)
    • #Same as get_node but returns nil for unloaded areas.
  • #minetest.get_node_light(pos, timeofday)
    • Gets the light value at the given position. Note that the light value "inside" the node at the given position is returned, so you usually want to get the light value of a neighbor.
    • #pos: The position where to measure the light.
    • #timeofday: nil for current time, 0 for night, 0.5 for day
    • #Returns a number between 0 and 15 or nil
  • #minetest.place_node(pos, node)
    • Place node with the same effects that a player would cause
  • #minetest.dig_node(pos)
    • Dig node with the same effects that a player would cause
    • #Returns true if successful, false on failure (e.g. protected location)
  • #minetest.punch_node(pos)
    • Punch node with the same effects that a player would cause
  • #

    minetest.spawn_falling_node(pos)

    • Change node into falling node
    • #Returns true if successful, false on failure
  • #

    minetest.find_nodes_with_meta(pos1, pos2)

    • Get a table of positions of nodes that have metadata within a region {pos1, pos2}.
  • #minetest.get_meta(pos)
    • #Get a NodeMetaRef at that position
  • #

    minetest.get_node_timer(pos)

    • #Get NodeTimerRef
  • #

    minetest.add_entity(pos, name, [staticdata]): Spawn Lua-defined entity at position.

    • #Returns ObjectRef, or nil if failed
  • #minetest.add_item(pos, item): Spawn item
    • #Returns ObjectRef, or nil if failed
  • #minetest.get_player_by_name(name): Get an ObjectRef to a player
  • #minetest.get_objects_inside_radius(pos, radius): returns a list of ObjectRefs.
    • #radius: using an euclidean metric
  • #minetest.set_timeofday(val)
    • #val is between 0 and 1; 0 for midnight, 0.5 for midday
  • #minetest.get_timeofday()
  • #minetest.get_gametime(): returns the time, in seconds, since the world was created.
  • #minetest.get_day_count(): returns number days elapsed since world was created.
    • accounts for time changes.
  • #minetest.find_node_near(pos, radius, nodenames, [search_center]): returns pos or nil.
    • #radius: using a maximum metric
    • #nodenames: e.g. {"ignore", "group:tree"} or "default:dirt"
    • #search_center is an optional boolean (default: false) If true pos is also checked for the nodes
  • #minetest.find_nodes_in_area(pos1, pos2, nodenames): returns a list of positions.
    • #nodenames: e.g. {"ignore", "group:tree"} or "default:dirt"
    • First return value: Table with all node positions
    • Second return value: Table with the count of each node with the node name as index.
    • Area volume is limited to 4,096,000 nodes
  • #minetest.find_nodes_in_area_under_air(pos1, pos2, nodenames): returns a list of positions.
    • #nodenames: e.g. {"ignore", "group:tree"} or "default:dirt"
    • Return value: Table with all node positions with a node air above
    • Area volume is limited to 4,096,000 nodes
  • #minetest.get_perlin(noiseparams)
  • #minetest.get_perlin(seeddiff, octaves, persistence, scale)
    • #Return world-specific perlin noise (int(worldseed)+seeddiff)
  • #minetest.get_voxel_manip([pos1, pos2])
    • Return voxel manipulator object.
    • Loads the manipulator from the map if positions are passed.
  • #minetest.set_gen_notify(flags, {deco_ids})
    • Set the types of on-generate notifications that should be collected.
    • #flags is a flag field with the available flags:
      • dungeon
      • temple
      • cave_begin
      • cave_end
      • large_cave_begin
      • large_cave_end
      • decoration
    • The second parameter is a list of IDS of decorations which notification is requested for.
  • #minetest.get_gen_notify()
    • #Returns a flagstring and a table with the deco_ids.
  • #`minetest.get_decoration_id(decoration_name)
    • #Returns the decoration ID number for the provided decoration name string, or nil on failure.
  • #minetest.get_mapgen_object(objectname)
    • Return requested mapgen object if available (see "Mapgen objects")
  • #minetest.get_heat(pos)
    • #Returns the heat at the position, or nil on failure.
  • #minetest.get_humidity(pos)
    • #Returns the humidity at the position, or nil on failure.
  • #minetest.get_biome_data(pos)
    • #Returns a table containing:
      • #biome the biome id of the biome at that position
      • #heat the heat at the position
      • #humidity the humidity at the position
    • #Or returns nil on failure.
  • #minetest.get_biome_id(biome_name)
    • #Returns the biome id, as used in the biomemap Mapgen object and returned by minetest.get_biome_data(pos), for a given biome_name string.
  • #minetest.get_biome_name(biome_id)
    • #Returns the biome name string for the provided biome id, or nil on failure.
    • #If no biomes have been registered, such as in mgv6, returns default.
  • #minetest.get_mapgen_params()
    • #Deprecated: use minetest.get_mapgen_setting(name) instead.
    • #Returns a table containing:
      • #mgname
      • #seed
      • #chunksize
      • #water_level
      • #flags
  • #minetest.set_mapgen_params(MapgenParams)
    • #Deprecated: use minetest.set_mapgen_setting(name, value, override) instead.
    • Set map generation parameters.
    • #Function cannot be called after the registration period; only initialization and on_mapgen_init.
    • #Takes a table as an argument with the fields:
      • #mgname
      • #seed
      • #chunksize
      • #water_level
      • #flags
    • Leave field unset to leave that parameter unchanged.
    • #flags contains a comma-delimited string of flags to set, or if the prefix "no" is attached, clears instead.
    • #flags is in the same format and has the same options as mg_flags in minetest.conf.
  • #minetest.get_mapgen_setting(name)
    • Gets the active mapgen setting (or nil if none exists) in string format with the following order of precedence: 1) Settings loaded from map_meta.txt or overrides set during mod execution. 2) Settings set by mods without a metafile override 3) Settings explicitly set in the user config file, minetest.conf 4) Settings set as the user config default
  • #minetest.get_mapgen_setting_noiseparams(name)
    • #Same as above, but returns the value as a NoiseParams table if the setting name exists and is a valid NoiseParams.
  • #minetest.set_mapgen_setting(name, value, [override_meta])
    • #Sets a mapgen param to value, and will take effect if the corresponding mapgen setting is not already present in map_meta.txt.
    • #override_meta is an optional boolean (default: false). If this is set to true, the setting will become the active setting regardless of the map metafile contents.
    • #Note: to set the seed, use "seed", not "fixed_map_seed".
  • #minetest.set_mapgen_setting_noiseparams(name, value, [override_meta])
    • Same as above, except value is a NoiseParams table.
  • #minetest.set_noiseparams(name, noiseparams, set_default)
    • #Sets the noiseparams setting of name to the noiseparams table specified in noiseparams.
    • #set_default is an optional boolean (default: true) that specifies whether the setting should be applied to the default config or current active config.
  • #minetest.get_noiseparams(name)
    • Returns a table of the noiseparams for name.
  • #minetest.generate_ores(vm, pos1, pos2)
    • #Generate all registered ores within the VoxelManip vm and in the area from pos1 to pos2.
    • #pos1 and pos2 are optional and default to mapchunk minp and maxp.
  • #minetest.generate_decorations(vm, pos1, pos2)
    • #Generate all registered decorations within the VoxelManip vm and in the area from pos1 to pos2.
    • #pos1 and pos2 are optional and default to mapchunk minp and maxp.
  • #minetest.clear_objects([options])
    • Clear all objects in the environment
    • #Takes an optional table as an argument with the field mode.
      • #mode = "full" : Load and go through every mapblock, clearing objects (default).
      • #mode = "quick": Clear objects immediately in loaded mapblocks, clear objects in unloaded mapblocks only when the mapblocks are next activated.
  • #minetest.emerge_area(pos1, pos2, [callback], [param])
    • #Queue all blocks in the area from pos1 to pos2, inclusive, to be asynchronously fetched from memory, loaded from disk, or if inexistent, generates them.
    • #If callback is a valid Lua function, this will be called for each block emerged.
    • #The function signature of callback is:
      • #function EmergeAreaCallback(blockpos, action, calls_remaining, param)
        • #blockpos is the block coordinates of the block that had been emerged.
        • #action could be one of the following constant values:
          • #minetest.EMERGE_CANCELLED
          • #minetest.EMERGE_ERRORED
          • #minetest.EMERGE_FROM_MEMORY
          • #minetest.EMERGE_FROM_DISK
          • #minetest.EMERGE_GENERATED
        • #calls_remaining is the number of callbacks to be expected after this one.
        • #param is the user-defined parameter passed to emerge_area (or nil if the parameter was absent).
  • #minetest.delete_area(pos1, pos2)
    • delete all mapblocks in the area from pos1 to pos2, inclusive
  • #minetest.line_of_sight(pos1, pos2): returns boolean, pos
    • Checks if there is anything other than air between pos1 and pos2.
    • Returns false if something is blocking the sight.
    • #Returns the position of the blocking node when false
    • #pos1: First position
    • #pos2: Second position
  • #minetest.raycast(pos1, pos2, objects, liquids): returns Raycast
    • #Creates a Raycast object.
    • #pos1: start of the ray
    • #pos2: end of the ray
    • #objects : if false, only nodes will be returned. Default is true.
    • #liquids' : if false, liquid nodes won't be returned. Default isfalse`.
  • #minetest.find_path(pos1,pos2,searchdistance,max_jump,max_drop,algorithm)
    • returns table containing path
    • #returns a table of 3D points representing a path from pos1 to pos2 or nil.
    • #pos1: start position
    • #pos2: end position
    • #searchdistance: number of blocks to search in each direction using a maximum metric.
    • #max_jump: maximum height difference to consider walkable
    • #max_drop: maximum height difference to consider droppable
    • #algorithm: One of "A*_noprefetch" (default), "A*", "Dijkstra"
  • #minetest.spawn_tree (pos, {treedef})
    • #spawns L-system tree at given pos with definition in treedef table
  • #minetest.transforming_liquid_add(pos)
    • add node to liquid update queue
  • #minetest.get_node_max_level(pos)
    • get max available level for leveled node
  • #minetest.get_node_level(pos)
    • get level of leveled node (water, snow)
  • #minetest.set_node_level(pos, level)
    • #set level of leveled node, default level equals 1
    • #if totallevel > maxlevel, returns rest (total-max).
  • #minetest.add_node_level(pos, level)
    • #increase level of leveled node by level, default level equals 1
    • #if totallevel > maxlevel, returns rest (total-max)
    • can be negative for decreasing
  • #minetest.fix_light(pos1, pos2): returns true/false
    • resets the light in a cuboid-shaped part of the map and removes lighting bugs.
    • Loads the area if it is not loaded.
    • #pos1 is the corner of the cuboid with the least coordinates (in node coordinates), inclusive.
    • #pos2 is the opposite corner of the cuboid, inclusive.
    • The actual updated cuboid might be larger than the specified one, because only whole map blocks can be updated. The actual updated area consists of those map blocks that intersect with the given cuboid.
    • However, the neighborhood of the updated area might change as well, as light can spread out of the cuboid, also light might be removed.
    • #returns false if the area is not fully generated, true otherwise
  • #minetest.check_single_for_falling(pos)
    • #causes an unsupported group:falling_node node to fall and causes an unattached group:attached_node node to fall.
    • does not spread these updates to neighbours.
  • #minetest.check_for_falling(pos)
    • #causes an unsupported group:falling_node node to fall and causes an unattached group:attached_node node to fall.
    • spread these updates to neighbours and can cause a cascade of nodes to fall.
  • #minetest.get_spawn_level(x, z)
    • #Returns a player spawn y co-ordinate for the provided (x, z) co-ordinates, or nil for an unsuitable spawn point.
    • #For most mapgens a 'suitable spawn point' is one with y between water_level and water_level + 16, and in mgv7 well away from rivers, so nil will be returned for many (x, z) co-ordinates.
    • The spawn level returned is for a player spawn in unmodified terrain.
    • The spawn level is intentionally above terrain level to cope with full-node biome 'dust' nodes.

Mod channels

You can find mod channels communication scheme in docs/mod_channels.png.

  • #minetest.mod_channel_join(channel_name)
    • #Server joins channel channel_name, and creates it if necessary. You should listen from incoming messages with minetest.register_on_modchannel_message call to receive incoming messages.

Inventory

minetest.get_inventory(location): returns an InvRef

  • #location = e.g.
    • #{type="player", name="celeron55"}
    • #{type="node", pos={x=, y=, z=}}
    • #{type="detached", name="creative"}
  • #minetest.create_detached_inventory(name, callbacks, [player_name]): returns an InvRef.
    • callbacks: See "Detached inventory callbacks"
    • #player_name: Make detached inventory available to one player exclusively, by default they will be sent to every player (even if not used). Note that this parameter is mostly just a workaround and will be removed in future releases.
    • Creates a detached inventory. If it already exists, it is cleared.
  • #minetest.do_item_eat(hp_change, replace_with_item, itemstack, user, pointed_thing): returns left over ItemStack.
    • #See minetest.item_eat and minetest.register_on_item_eat

Formspec

  • #minetest.show_formspec(playername, formname, formspec)
    • #playername: name of player to show formspec
    • #formname: name passed to on_player_receive_fields callbacks. It should follow the "modname:<whatever>" naming convention
    • #formspec: formspec to display
  • #minetest.close_formspec(playername, formname)
    • #playername: name of player to close formspec
    • #formname: has to exactly match the one given in show_formspec, or the formspec will not close.
    • #calling show_formspec(playername, formname, "") is equal to this expression.
    • #to close a formspec regardless of the formname, call minetest.close_formspec(playername, ""). USE THIS ONLY WHEN ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY!
  • #minetest.formspec_escape(string): returns a string
    • escapes the characters "[", "]", "\", "," and ";", which can not be used in formspecs.
  • #minetest.explode_table_event(string): returns a table
    • #returns e.g. {type="CHG", row=1, column=2}
    • #type is one of:
      • #"INV": no row selected)
      • #"CHG": selected)
      • #"DCL": double-click
  • #minetest.explode_textlist_event(string): returns a table
    • #returns e.g. {type="CHG", index=1}
    • #type is one of:
      • #"INV": no row selected)
      • #"CHG": selected)
      • #"DCL": double-click
  • #minetest.explode_scrollbar_event(string): returns a table
    • #returns e.g. {type="CHG", value=500}
    • #type is one of:
      • #"INV": something failed
      • #"CHG": has been changed
      • #"VAL": not changed

Item handling

  • #minetest.inventorycube(img1, img2, img3)
    • Returns a string for making an image of a cube (useful as an item image)
  • #minetest.get_pointed_thing_position(pointed_thing, above)
    • #Get position of a pointed_thing (that you can get from somewhere)
  • #minetest.dir_to_facedir(dir, is6d)
    • #Convert a vector to a facedir value, used in param2 for paramtype2="facedir".
    • #passing something non-nil/false for the optional second parameter causes it to take the y component into account.
  • #minetest.facedir_to_dir(facedir)
    • Convert a facedir back into a vector aimed directly out the "back" of a node.
  • #minetest.dir_to_wallmounted(dir)
    • #Convert a vector to a wallmounted value, used for paramtype2="wallmounted".
  • #minetest.wallmounted_to_dir(wallmounted)
    • Convert a wallmounted value back into a vector aimed directly out the "back" of a node.
  • #minetest.dir_to_yaw(dir)
    • Convert a vector into a yaw (angle)
  • #minetest.yaw_to_dir(yaw)
    • Convert yaw (angle) to a vector
  • #minetest.is_colored_paramtype(ptype)
    • #Returns a boolean. Returns true if the given paramtype2 contains color information (color, colorwallmounted or colorfacedir).
  • #minetest.strip_param2_color(param2, paramtype2)
    • #Removes everything but the color information from the given param2 value.
    • #Returns nil if the given paramtype2 does not contain color information.
  • #minetest.get_node_drops(nodename, toolname)
    • Returns list of item names.
    • Note: This will be removed or modified in a future version.
  • #minetest.get_craft_result(input): returns output, decremented_input
    • #input.method = "normal" or "cooking" or "fuel"
    • #input.width = for example 3
    • #input.items = for example {stack1, stack2, stack3, stack4, stack 5, stack 6, stack 7, stack 8, stack 9}
    • #output.item = ItemStack, if unsuccessful: empty ItemStack
    • #output.time = a number, if unsuccessful: 0
    • #output.replacements = list of ItemStacks that couldn't be placed in decremented_input.items
    • #decremented_input = like input
  • #minetest.get_craft_recipe(output): returns input
    • returns last registered recipe for output item (node)
    • #output is a node or item type such as "default:torch"
    • #input.method = "normal" or "cooking" or "fuel"
    • #input.width = for example 3
    • #input.items = for example {stack1, stack2, stack3, stack4, stack 5, stack 6, stack 7, stack 8, stack 9}
      • #input.items = nil if no recipe found
  • #minetest.get_all_craft_recipes(query item): returns a table or nil
    • #returns indexed table with all registered recipes for query item (node) or nil if no recipe was found.
    • #

      recipe entry table:

      { method = 'normal' or 'cooking' or 'fuel' width = 0-3, 0 means shapeless recipe items = indexed [1-9] table with recipe items output = string with item name and quantity } * Example query for "default:gold_ingot" will return table:

      { [1]={method = "cooking", width = 3, output = "default:gold_ingot", items = {1 = "default:gold_lump"}}, [2]={method = "normal", width = 1, output = "default:gold_ingot 9", items = {1 = "default:goldblock"}} } minetest.handle_node_drops(pos, drops, digger) * drops: list of itemstrings * Handles drops from nodes after digging: Default action is to put them into digger's inventory. * Can be overridden to get different functionality (e.g. dropping items on ground) minetest.itemstring_with_palette(item, palette_index): returns an item string. * Creates an item string which contains palette index information for hardware colorization. You can use the returned string as an output in a craft recipe. * item: the item stack which becomes colored. Can be in string, table and native form. * palette_index: this index is added to the item stack * minetest.itemstring_with_color(item, colorstring): returns an item string * Creates an item string which contains static color information for hardware colorization. Use this method if you wish to colorize an item that does not own a palette. You can use the returned string as an output in a craft recipe. * item: the item stack which becomes colored. Can be in string, table and native form. * colorstring: the new color of the item stack

Rollback

  • #minetest.rollback_get_node_actions(pos, range, seconds, limit): returns { {actor, pos, time, oldnode, newnode}, ...}
    • Find who has done something to a node, or near a node
    • #actor: "player:<name>", also "liquid".
  • #minetest.rollback_revert_actions_by(actor, seconds): returns boolean, log_messages.
    • Revert latest actions of someone
    • #actor: "player:<name>", also "liquid".

Defaults for the on_* item definition functions

These functions return the leftover itemstack.

  • #minetest.item_place_node(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing, param2)
    • Place item as a node
    • #param2 overrides facedir and wallmounted param2
    • #returns itemstack, success
  • #minetest.item_place_object(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing)
    • Place item as-is
  • #minetest.item_place(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing, param2)
    • Use one of the above based on what the item is.
    • #Calls on_rightclick of pointed_thing.under if defined instead
    • #Note: is not called when wielded item overrides on_place
    • #param2 overrides facedir and wallmounted param2
    • #returns itemstack, success
  • #minetest.item_drop(itemstack, dropper, pos)
    • Drop the item
  • #minetest.item_eat(hp_change, replace_with_item)
    • Eat the item.
    • #replace_with_item is the itemstring which is added to the inventory. If the player is eating a stack, then replace_with_item goes to a different spot. Can be nil
    • #See minetest.do_item_eat

Defaults for the on_punch and on_dig node definition callbacks

  • #minetest.node_punch(pos, node, puncher, pointed_thing)
    • #Calls functions registered by minetest.register_on_punchnode()
  • #minetest.node_dig(pos, node, digger)
    • Checks if node can be dug, puts item into inventory, removes node
    • #Calls functions registered by minetest.registered_on_dignodes()

Sounds

  • #minetest.sound_play(spec, parameters): returns a handle
    • #spec is a SimpleSoundSpec
    • #parameters is a sound parameter table
  • #minetest.sound_stop(handle)
  • #minetest.sound_fade(handle, step, gain)
    • #handle is a handle returned by minetest.sound_play
    • #step determines how fast a sound will fade. Negative step will lower the sound volume, positive step will increase the sound volume.
    • #gain the target gain for the fade.

Timing

  • #minetest.after(time, func, ...)
    • #Call the function func after time seconds, may be fractional
    • #Optional: Variable number of arguments that are passed to func

Server

  • #minetest.request_shutdown([message],[reconnect],[delay]): request for server shutdown. Will display message to clients.
    • #reconnect == true displays a reconnect button
    • #delay adds an optional delay (in seconds) before shutdown. Negative delay cancels the current active shutdown. Zero delay triggers an immediate shutdown.
  • #minetest.cancel_shutdown_requests(): cancel current delayed shutdown
  • #minetest.get_server_status(): returns server status string
  • #minetest.get_server_uptime(): returns the server uptime in seconds
  • #minetest.remove_player(name): remove player from database (if they are not connected).
    • As auth data is not removed, minetest.player_exists will continue to return true. Call the below method as well if you want to remove auth data too.
    • Returns a code (0: successful, 1: no such player, 2: player is connected)
  • #minetest.remove_player_auth(name): remove player authentication data
    • Returns boolean indicating success (false if player nonexistant)

Bans

  • #minetest.get_ban_list(): returns the ban list (same as minetest.get_ban_description("")).
  • #minetest.get_ban_description(ip_or_name): returns ban description (string)
  • #minetest.ban_player(name): ban a player
  • #minetest.unban_player_or_ip(name): unban player or IP address
  • #minetest.kick_player(name, [reason]): disconnect a player with a optional reason.

Particles

  • #

    minetest.add_particle(particle definition)

    • #Deprecated: minetest.add_particle(pos, velocity, acceleration, expirationtime, size, collisiondetection, texture, playername)
  • #

    minetest.add_particlespawner(particlespawner definition)

    • #Add a ParticleSpawner, an object that spawns an amount of particles over time seconds.
    • #Returns an id, and -1 if adding didn't succeed
    • #Deprecated: minetest.add_particlespawner(amount, time, minpos, maxpos, minvel, maxvel, minacc, maxacc, minexptime, maxexptime, minsize, maxsize, collisiondetection, texture, playername)
  • #

    minetest.delete_particlespawner(id, player)

    • #Delete ParticleSpawner with id (return value from minetest.add_particlespawner).
    • If playername is specified, only deletes on the player's client, otherwise on all clients.

Schematics

  • #

    minetest.create_schematic(p1, p2, probability_list, filename, slice_prob_list)

    • Create a schematic from the volume of map specified by the box formed by p1 and p2.
    • #Apply the specified probability and per-node force-place to the specified nodes according to the probability_list.
      • #probability_list is an array of tables containing two fields, pos and prob.
        • #pos is the 3D vector specifying the absolute coordinates of the node being modified,
        • #prob is an integer value from 0 to 255 that encodes probability and per-node force-place. Probability has levels 0-127, then 128 may be added to encode per-node force-place. For probability stated as 0-255, divide by 2 and round down to get values 0-127, then add 128 to apply per-node force-place.
        • If there are two or more entries with the same pos value, the last entry is used.
        • #If pos is not inside the box formed by p1 and p2, it is ignored.
        • #If probability_list equals nil, no probabilities are applied.
    • #Apply the specified probability to the specified horizontal slices according to the slice_prob_list.
      • #slice_prob_list is an array of tables containing two fields, ypos and prob.
        • #ypos indicates the y position of the slice with a probability applied, the lowest slice being ypos = 0.
        • #If slice probability list equals nil, no slice probabilities are applied.
    • Saves schematic in the Minetest Schematic format to filename.
  • #

    minetest.place_schematic(pos, schematic, rotation, replacements, force_placement, flags)

    • #Place the schematic specified by schematic (see: Schematic specifier) at pos.
    • #rotation can equal "0", "90", "180", "270", or "random".
    • #If the rotation parameter is omitted, the schematic is not rotated.
    • #replacements = {["old_name"] = "convert_to", ...}
    • #force_placement is a boolean indicating whether nodes other than air and ignore are replaced by the schematic.
    • Returns nil if the schematic could not be loaded.
    • Warning: Once you have loaded a schematic from a file, it will be cached. Future calls will always use the cached version and the replacement list defined for it, regardless of whether the file or the replacement list parameter have changed. The only way to load the file anew is to restart the server.
    • #flags is a flag field with the available flags:
      • place_center_x
      • place_center_y
      • place_center_z
  • #

    minetest.place_schematic_on_vmanip(vmanip, pos, schematic, rotation, replacement, force_placement, flags):

    • #This function is analogous to minetest.place_schematic, but places a schematic onto the specified VoxelManip object vmanip instead of the map.
    • Returns false if any part of the schematic was cut-off due to the VoxelManip not containing the full area required, and true if the whole schematic was able to fit.
    • Returns nil if the schematic could not be loaded.
    • After execution, any external copies of the VoxelManip contents are invalidated.
    • #flags is a flag field with the available flags:
      • place_center_x
      • place_center_y
      • place_center_z
  • #

    minetest.serialize_schematic(schematic, format, options)

    • Return the serialized schematic specified by schematic (see: Schematic specifier)
    • #in the format of either "mts" or "lua".
    • "mts" - a string containing the binary MTS data used in the MTS file format.
    • "lua" - a string containing Lua code representing the schematic in table format.
    • #options is a table containing the following optional parameters:
      • #If lua_use_comments is true and format is "lua", the Lua code generated will have (X, Z) position comments for every X row generated in the schematic data for easier reading.
      • #If lua_num_indent_spaces is a nonzero number and format is "lua", the Lua code generated will use that number of spaces as indentation instead of a tab character.

HTTP Requests:

  • #minetest.request_http_api():
    • #returns HTTPApiTable containing http functions if the calling mod has been granted access by being listed in the secure.http_mods or secure.trusted_mods setting, otherwise returns nil.
    • #The returned table contains the functions fetch, fetch_async and fetch_async_get described below.
    • Only works at init time and must be called from the mod's main scope (not from a function).
    • Function only exists if minetest server was built with cURL support.
    • DO NOT ALLOW ANY OTHER MODS TO ACCESS THE RETURNED TABLE, STORE IT IN A LOCAL VARIABLE!
  • #HTTPApiTable.fetch(HTTPRequest req, callback)
    • Performs given request asynchronously and calls callback upon completion
    • #callback: function(HTTPRequestResult res)
    • Use this HTTP function if you are unsure, the others are for advanced use
  • #HTTPApiTable.fetch_async(HTTPRequest req): returns handle
    • #Performs given request asynchronously and returns handle for HTTPApiTable.fetch_async_get
  • #HTTPApiTable.fetch_async_get(handle): returns HTTPRequestResult
    • Return response data for given asynchronous HTTP request

Storage API:

  • #minetest.get_mod_storage():
    • #returns reference to mod private StorageRef
    • must be called during mod load time

Misc.

  • #minetest.get_connected_players(): returns list of ObjectRefs
  • #minetest.is_player(o): boolean, whether o is a player
  • #minetest.player_exists(name): boolean, whether player exists (regardless of online status)
  • #minetest.hud_replace_builtin(name, hud_definition)
    • Replaces definition of a builtin hud element
    • #name: "breath" or "health"
    • #hud_definition: definition to replace builtin definition
  • #minetest.send_join_message(player_name)
    • This function can be overridden by mods to change the join message.
  • #minetest.send_leave_message(player_name, timed_out)
    • This function can be overridden by mods to change the leave message.
  • #minetest.hash_node_position(pos): returns an 48-bit integer
    • #pos: table {x=number, y=number, z=number},
    • Gives a unique hash number for a node position (16+16+16=48bit)
  • #minetest.get_position_from_hash(hash): returns a position
    • #Inverse transform of minetest.hash_node_position
  • #minetest.get_item_group(name, group): returns a rating
    • #Get rating of a group of an item. (0 means: not in group)
  • #minetest.get_node_group(name, group): returns a rating
    • Deprecated: An alias for the former.
  • #minetest.raillike_group(name): returns a rating
    • Returns rating of the connect_to_raillike group corresponding to name
    • If name is not yet the name of a connect_to_raillike group, a new group id is created, with that name.
  • #minetest.get_content_id(name): returns an integer
    • #Gets the internal content ID of name
  • #minetest.get_name_from_content_id(content_id): returns a string
    • Gets the name of the content with that content ID
  • #minetest.parse_json(string[, nullvalue]): returns something
    • Convert a string containing JSON data into the Lua equivalent
    • #nullvalue: returned in place of the JSON null; defaults to nil
    • #On success returns a table, a string, a number, a boolean or nullvalue
    • #On failure outputs an error message and returns nil
    • #Example: parse_json("[10, {\"a\":false}]"), returns {10, {a = false}}
  • #minetest.write_json(data[, styled]): returns a string or nil and an error message.
    • Convert a Lua table into a JSON string
    • styled: Outputs in a human-readable format if this is set, defaults to false.
    • Unserializable things like functions and userdata will cause an error.
    • Warning: JSON is more strict than the Lua table format.
      1. You can only use strings and positive integers of at least one as keys.
      2. You can not mix string and integer keys. This is due to the fact that JSON has two distinct array and object values.
    • #Example: write_json({10, {a = false}}), returns "[10, {\"a\": false}]"
  • #minetest.serialize(table): returns a string
    • #Convert a table containing tables, strings, numbers, booleans and nils into string form readable by minetest.deserialize
    • #Example: serialize({foo='bar'}), returns 'return { ["foo"] = "bar" }'
  • #minetest.deserialize(string): returns a table
    • #Convert a string returned by minetest.deserialize into a table
    • #string is loaded in an empty sandbox environment.
    • Will load functions, but they cannot access the global environment.
    • #Example: deserialize('return { ["foo"] = "bar" }'), returns {foo='bar'}
    • #Example: deserialize('print("foo")'), returns nil (function call fails), returns error:[string "print("foo")"]:1: attempt to call global 'print' (a nil value)
  • #minetest.compress(data, method, ...): returns compressed_data
    • Compress a string of data.
    • #method is a string identifying the compression method to be used.
    • #Supported compression methods:
      • #Deflate (zlib): "deflate"
    • ... indicates method-specific arguments. Currently defined arguments are:
      • #Deflate: level - Compression level, 0-9 or nil.
  • #minetest.decompress(compressed_data, method, ...): returns data
    • Decompress a string of data (using ZLib).
    • #See documentation on minetest.compress() for supported compression methods.
    • ... indicates method-specific arguments. Currently, no methods use this
  • #minetest.rgba(red, green, blue[, alpha]): returns a string
    • Each argument is a 8 Bit unsigned integer
    • Returns the ColorString from rgb or rgba values
    • #Example: minetest.rgba(10, 20, 30, 40), returns "#0A141E28"
  • #minetest.encode_base64(string): returns string encoded in base64
    • Encodes a string in base64.
  • #minetest.decode_base64(string): returns string
    • Decodes a string encoded in base64.
  • #

    minetest.is_protected(pos, name): returns boolean

    • #Returns true, if player name shouldn't be able to dig at pos or do other actions, definable by mods, due to some mod-defined ownership-like concept.
    • Returns false or nil, if the player is allowed to do such actions.
    • #name will be "" for non-players or unknown players.
    • This function should be overridden by protection mods and should be used to check if a player can interact at a position.
    • This function should call the old version of itself if the position is not protected by the mod.
    • #Example:
      local old_is_protected = minetest.is_protected
      function minetest.is_protected(pos, name)
          if mymod:position_protected_from(pos, name) then
              return true
          end
              return old_is_protected(pos, name)
      end
      
      • #minetest.record_protection_violation(pos, name)
        • #This function calls functions registered with minetest.register_on_protection_violation.
      • #`minetest.is_area_protected(pos1, pos2, player_name, interval)
        • #Returns the position of the first node that player_name may not modify in the specified cuboid between pos1 and pos2.
        • #Returns false if no protections were found.
        • #Applies is_protected() to a 3D lattice of points in the defined volume. The points are spaced evenly throughout the volume and have a spacing similar to, but no larger than, interval.
        • All corners and edges of the defined volume are checked.
        • #interval defaults to 4.
        • #interval should be carefully chosen and maximised to avoid an excessive number of points being checked.
        • #Like minetest.is_protected, this function may be extended or overwritten by mods to provide a faster implementation to check the cuboid for intersections.
      • #minetest.rotate_and_place(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing, infinitestacks, orient_flags)
        • #Attempt to predict the desired orientation of the facedir-capable node defined by itemstack, and place it accordingly (on-wall, on the floor, or hanging from the ceiling). Stacks are handled normally if the infinitestacks field is false or omitted (else, the itemstack is not changed). orient_flags is an optional table containing extra tweaks to the placement code:
      • #invert_wall: if true, place wall-orientation on the ground and ground-orientation on the wall.
      • #force_wall : if true, always place the node in wall orientation.
      • #force_ceiling: if true, always place on the ceiling.
      • #force_floor: if true, always place the node on the floor.
      • #force_facedir: if true, forcefully reset the facedir to north when placing on the floor or ceiling.
      • The first four options are mutually-exclusive; the last in the list takes precedence over the first.
      • #minetest.rotate_node(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing)
        • #calls rotate_and_place() with infinitestacks set according to the state of the creative mode setting, and checks for "sneak" to set the invert_wall parameter.
  • #

    minetest.forceload_block(pos[, transient])

    • #forceloads the position pos.
    • #returns true if area could be forceloaded
    • #If transient is false or absent, the forceload will be persistent (saved between server runs). If true, the forceload will be transient (not saved between server runs).
  • #

    minetest.forceload_free_block(pos[, transient])

    • #stops forceloading the position pos
    • #If transient is false or absent, frees a persistent forceload. If true, frees a transient forceload.
  • #

    minetest.request_insecure_environment(): returns an environment containing insecure functions if the calling mod has been listed as trusted in the secure.trusted_mods setting or security is disabled, otherwise returns nil.

    • Only works at init time and must be called from the mod's main scope (not from a function).
    • DO NOT ALLOW ANY OTHER MODS TO ACCESS THE RETURNED ENVIRONMENT, STORE IT IN A LOCAL VARIABLE!
  • #

    minetest.global_exists(name)

    • Checks if a global variable has been set, without triggering a warning.

Global objects

  • #minetest.env: EnvRef of the server environment and world.
    • #Any function in the minetest namespace can be called using the syntax minetest.env:somefunction(somearguments) instead of minetest.somefunction(somearguments)
    • Deprecated, but support is not to be dropped soon

Global tables

  • #minetest.registered_items
    • Map of registered items, indexed by name
  • #minetest.registered_nodes
    • Map of registered node definitions, indexed by name
  • #minetest.registered_craftitems
    • Map of registered craft item definitions, indexed by name
  • #minetest.registered_tools
    • Map of registered tool definitions, indexed by name
  • #minetest.registered_entities
    • Map of registered entity prototypes, indexed by name
  • #minetest.object_refs
    • Map of object references, indexed by active object id
  • #minetest.luaentities
    • Map of Lua entities, indexed by active object id
  • #minetest.registered_chatcommands
    • Map of registered chat command definitions, indexed by name
  • #minetest.registered_ores
    • List of registered ore definitions.
  • #minetest.registered_biomes
    • List of registered biome definitions.
  • #minetest.registered_decorations
    • List of registered decoration definitions.

Class reference

ModChannel

An interface to use mod channels on client and server

Methods

  • #leave(): leave the mod channel.
    • #Server leaves channel channel_name.
    • No more incoming or outgoing messages can be sent to this channel from server mods.
    • This invalidate all future object usage.
    • Ensure your set mod_channel to nil after that to free Lua resources.
  • #is_writeable(): returns true if channel is writeable and mod can send over it.
  • #send_all(message): Send message though the mod channel.
    • If mod channel is not writeable or invalid, message will be dropped.
    • Message size is limited to 65535 characters by protocol.

MetaDataRef

See StorageRef, NodeMetaRef and ItemStackMetaRef.

Methods

  • #set_string(name, value)
  • #get_string(name)
  • #set_int(name, value)
  • #get_int(name)
  • #set_float(name, value)
  • #get_float(name)
  • #to_table(): returns nil or a table with keys:
    • #fields: key-value storage
    • #inventory: {list1 = {}, ...}} (NodeMetaRef only)
  • #from_table(nil or {})
    • Any non-table value will clear the metadata
    • See "Node Metadata" for an example
    • #returns true on success
  • #equals(other)
    • #returns true if this metadata has the same key-value pairs as other

NodeMetaRef

Node metadata: reference extra data and functionality stored in a node. Can be obtained via minetest.get_meta(pos).

Methods

  • All methods in MetaDataRef
  • #get_inventory(): returns InvRef
  • #mark_as_private(name or {name1, name2, ...}): Mark specific vars as private This will prevent them from being sent to the client. Note that the "private" status will only be remembered if an associated key-value pair exists, meaning it's best to call this when initializing all other meta (e.g. on_construct).

ItemStackMetaRef

ItemStack metadata: reference extra data and functionality stored in a stack. Can be obtained via item:get_meta().

Methods

  • All methods in MetaDataRef
  • #set_tool_capabilities([tool_capabilities])
    • Overrides the item's tool capabilities
    • A nil value will clear the override data and restore the original behavior.

StorageRef

Mod metadata: per mod metadata, saved automatically. Can be obtained via minetest.get_mod_storage() during load time.

Methods

  • All methods in MetaDataRef

NodeTimerRef

Node Timers: a high resolution persistent per-node timer. Can be gotten via minetest.get_node_timer(pos).

Methods

  • #set(timeout,elapsed)
    • set a timer's state
    • #timeout is in seconds, and supports fractional values (0.1 etc)
    • #elapsed is in seconds, and supports fractional values (0.1 etc)
    • #will trigger the node's on_timer function after (timeout - elapsed) seconds.
  • #start(timeout)
    • start a timer
    • #equivalent to set(timeout,0)
  • #stop()
    • stops the timer
  • #get_timeout(): returns current timeout in seconds
    • #if timeout equals 0, timer is inactive
  • #get_elapsed(): returns current elapsed time in seconds
    • #the node's on_timer function will be called after (timeout - elapsed) seconds.
  • #is_started(): returns boolean state of timer
    • #returns true if timer is started, otherwise false

ObjectRef

Moving things in the game are generally these.

This is basically a reference to a C++ ServerActiveObject

Methods

  • #remove(): remove object (after returning from Lua)
    • #Note: Doesn't work on players, use minetest.kick_player instead
  • #get_pos(): returns {x=num, y=num, z=num}
  • #set_pos(pos); pos={x=num, y=num, z=num}
  • #move_to(pos, continuous=false): interpolated move
  • #punch(puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, direction)
    • #puncher = another ObjectRef,
    • #time_from_last_punch = time since last punch action of the puncher
    • #direction: can be nil
  • #right_click(clicker); clicker is another ObjectRef
  • #get_hp(): returns number of hitpoints (2 * number of hearts)
  • #set_hp(hp, reason): set number of hitpoints (2 * number of hearts).
    • See reason in register_on_player_hpchange
  • #get_inventory(): returns an InvRef
  • #get_wield_list(): returns the name of the inventory list the wielded item is in.
  • #get_wield_index(): returns the index of the wielded item
  • #get_wielded_item(): returns an ItemStack
  • #set_wielded_item(item): replaces the wielded item, returns true if successful.
  • #set_armor_groups({group1=rating, group2=rating, ...})
  • #get_armor_groups(): returns a table with the armor group ratings
  • #set_animation(frame_range, frame_speed, frame_blend, frame_loop)
    • #frame_range: table {x=num, y=num}, default: {x=1, y=1}
    • #frame_speed: number, default: 15.0
    • #frame_blend: number, default: 0.0
    • #frame_loop: boolean, default: true
  • #get_animation(): returns range, frame_speed, frame_blend and frame_loop.
  • #set_animation_frame_speed(frame_speed)
    • #frame_speed: number, default: 15.0
  • #set_attach(parent, bone, position, rotation)
    • #bone: string
    • #position: {x=num, y=num, z=num} (relative)
    • #rotation: {x=num, y=num, z=num} = Rotation on each axis, in degrees
  • #get_attach(): returns parent, bone, position, rotation or nil if it isn't attached.
  • #set_detach()
  • #set_bone_position(bone, position, rotation)
    • #bone: string
    • #position: {x=num, y=num, z=num} (relative)
    • #rotation: {x=num, y=num, z=num}
  • #get_bone_position(bone): returns position and rotation of the bone
  • #set_properties(object property table)
  • #get_properties(): returns object property table
  • #is_player(): returns true for players, false otherwise
  • #get_nametag_attributes()
    • returns a table with the attributes of the nametag of an object
    • { color = {a=0..255, r=0..255, g=0..255, b=0..255}, text = "", }
  • #set_nametag_attributes(attributes)
    • sets the attributes of the nametag of an object
    • #attributes: { color = ColorSpec, text = "My Nametag", }
LuaEntitySAO-only (no-op for other objects)
  • #set_velocity(vel)
    • #vel is a vector, e.g. {x=0.0, y=2.3, z=1.0}
  • #get_velocity(): returns the velocity, a vector
  • #set_acceleration(acc)
    • #acc is a vector
  • #get_acceleration(): returns the acceleration, a vector
  • #set_yaw(radians)
  • #get_yaw(): returns number in radians
  • #set_texture_mod(mod)
  • #get_texture_mod() returns current texture modifier
  • #set_sprite(p, num_frames, framelength, select_horiz_by_yawpitch)
    • Select sprite from spritesheet with optional animation and Dungeon Master style texture selection based on yaw relative to camera
    • #p: {x=number, y=number}, the coordinate of the first frame (x: column, y: row), default: {x=0, y=0}
    • #num_frames: number, default: 1
    • #framelength: number, default: 0.2
    • #select_horiz_by_yawpitch: boolean, this was once used for the Dungeon Master mob, default: false
  • #get_entity_name() (Deprecated: Will be removed in a future version)
  • #get_luaentity()
Player-only (no-op for other objects)
  • #get_player_name(): returns "" if is not a player
  • #get_player_velocity(): returns nil if is not a player, otherwise a table {x, y, z} representing the player's instantaneous velocity in nodes/s
  • #get_look_dir(): get camera direction as a unit vector
  • #get_look_vertical(): pitch in radians
    • Angle ranges between -pi/2 and pi/2, which are straight up and down respectively.
  • #get_look_horizontal(): yaw in radians
    • Angle is counter-clockwise from the +z direction.
  • #set_look_vertical(radians): sets look pitch
    • radians - Angle from looking forward, where positive is downwards.
  • #set_look_horizontal(radians): sets look yaw
    • radians - Angle from the +z direction, where positive is counter-clockwise.
  • #get_look_pitch(): pitch in radians - Deprecated as broken. Use get_look_vertical.
    • Angle ranges between -pi/2 and pi/2, which are straight down and up respectively.
  • #get_look_yaw(): yaw in radians - Deprecated as broken. Use get_look_horizontal.
    • Angle is counter-clockwise from the +x direction.
  • #set_look_pitch(radians): sets look pitch - Deprecated. Use set_look_vertical.
  • #set_look_yaw(radians): sets look yaw - Deprecated. Use set_look_horizontal.
  • #get_breath(): returns players breath
  • #set_breath(value): sets players breath
    • #values:
      • #0: player is drowning
      • max: bubbles bar is not shown
      • See Object Properties for more information
  • #set_attribute(attribute, value):
    • Sets an extra attribute with value on player.
    • #value must be a string, or a number which will be converted to a string.
    • #If value is nil, remove attribute from player.
  • #get_attribute(attribute):
    • Returns value (a string) for extra attribute.
    • #Returns nil if no attribute found.
  • #set_inventory_formspec(formspec)
    • Redefine player's inventory form
    • #Should usually be called in on_joinplayer
  • #get_inventory_formspec(): returns a formspec string
  • #set_formspec_prepend(formspec):
    • the formspec string will be added to every formspec shown to the user, except for those with a no_prepend[] tag.
    • This should be used to set style elements such as background[] and bgcolor[], any non-style elements (eg: label) may result in weird behaviour.
    • Only affects formspecs shown after this is called.
  • #get_formspec_prepend(formspec): returns a formspec string.
  • #get_player_control(): returns table with player pressed keys
    • The table consists of fields with boolean value representing the pressed keys, the fields are jump, right, left, LMB, RMB, sneak, aux1, down, up.
    • #example: {jump=false, right=true, left=false, LMB=false, RMB=false, sneak=true, aux1=false, down=false, up=false}
  • #get_player_control_bits(): returns integer with bit packed player pressed keys.
    • bit nr/meaning: 0/up, 1/down, 2/left, 3/right, 4/jump, 5/aux1, 6/sneak, 7/LMB, 8/RMB
  • #set_physics_override(override_table)
    • #override_table is a table with the following fields:
      • #speed: multiplier to default walking speed value (default: 1)
      • #jump: multiplier to default jump value (default: 1)
      • #gravity: multiplier to default gravity value (default: 1)
      • #sneak: whether player can sneak (default: true)
      • #sneak_glitch: whether player can use the new move code replications of the old sneak side-effects: sneak ladders and 2 node sneak jump (default: false)
      • #new_move: use new move/sneak code. When false the exact old code is used for the specific old sneak behaviour (default: true)
  • #get_physics_override(): returns the table given to set_physics_override
  • #hud_add(hud definition): add a HUD element described by HUD def, returns ID number on success
  • #hud_remove(id): remove the HUD element of the specified id
  • #hud_change(id, stat, value): change a value of a previously added HUD element.
    • #element stat values: position, name, scale, text, number, item, dir
  • #hud_get(id): gets the HUD element definition structure of the specified ID
  • #hud_set_flags(flags): sets specified HUD flags to true/false
    • #flags: (is visible) hotbar, healthbar, crosshair, wielditem, breathbar, minimap, minimap_radar
    • #pass a table containing a true/false value of each flag to be set or unset.
    • #if a flag equals nil, the flag is not modified
    • #note that setting minimap modifies the client's permission to view the minimap - the client may locally elect to not view the minimap.
    • #minimap radar is only usable when minimap is true
  • #hud_get_flags(): returns a table containing status of hud flags
    • #returns {hotbar=true, healthbar=true, crosshair=true, wielditem=true, breathbar=true, minimap=true, minimap_radar=true}
  • #hud_set_hotbar_itemcount(count): sets number of items in builtin hotbar
    • #count: number of items, must be between 1 and 23
  • #hud_get_hotbar_itemcount: returns number of visible items
  • #hud_set_hotbar_image(texturename)
    • sets background image for hotbar
  • #hud_get_hotbar_image: returns texturename
  • #hud_set_hotbar_selected_image(texturename)
    • sets image for selected item of hotbar
  • #hud_get_hotbar_selected_image: returns texturename
  • #set_sky(bgcolor, type, {texture names}, clouds)
    • #bgcolor: ColorSpec, defaults to white
    • #type: Available types:
      • #"regular": Uses 0 textures, bgcolor ignored
      • #"skybox": Uses 6 textures, bgcolor used
      • #"plain": Uses 0 textures, bgcolor used
    • #clouds: Boolean for whether clouds appear in front of "skybox" or "plain" custom skyboxes (default: true)
  • #get_sky(): returns bgcolor, type, table of textures, clouds
  • #set_clouds(parameters): set cloud parameters
    • #parameters is a table with the following optional fields:
      • #density: from 0 (no clouds) to 1 (full clouds) (default 0.4)
      • #color: basic cloud color with alpha channel, ColorSpec (default #fff0f0e5).
      • #ambient: cloud color lower bound, use for a "glow at night" effect. ColorSpec (alpha ignored, default #000000)
      • #height: cloud height, i.e. y of cloud base (default per conf, usually 120)
      • #thickness: cloud thickness in nodes (default 16)
      • #speed: 2D cloud speed + direction in nodes per second (default {x=0, z=-2}).
  • #get_clouds(): returns a table with the current cloud parameters as in set_clouds.
  • #override_day_night_ratio(ratio or nil)
    • #0...1: Overrides day-night ratio, controlling sunlight to a specific amount.
    • #nil: Disables override, defaulting to sunlight based on day-night cycle
  • #get_day_night_ratio(): returns the ratio or nil if it isn't overridden
  • #set_local_animation(stand/idle, walk, dig, walk+dig, frame_speed=frame_speed): set animation for player model in third person view
    set_local_animation({x=0, y=79}, -- < stand/idle animation key frames
        {x=168, y=187}, -- < walk animation key frames
        {x=189, y=198}, -- <  dig animation key frames
        {x=200, y=219}, -- <  walk+dig animation key frames
        frame_speed=30): -- <  animation frame speed
    
    • #get_local_animation(): returns stand, walk, dig, dig+walk tables and frame_speed.
    • #set_eye_offset({x=0,y=0,z=0},{x=0,y=0,z=0}): defines offset value for camera per player.
    • in first person view
    • #in third person view (max. values {x=-10/10,y=-10,15,z=-5/5})
    • #get_eye_offset(): returns offset_first and offset_third

InvRef

An InvRef is a reference to an inventory.

Methods

  • #is_empty(listname): return true if list is empty
  • #get_size(listname): get size of a list
  • #set_size(listname, size): set size of a list
    • #returns false on error (e.g. invalid listname or size)
  • #get_width(listname): get width of a list
  • #set_width(listname, width): set width of list; currently used for crafting
  • #get_stack(listname, i): get a copy of stack index i in list
  • #set_stack(listname, i, stack): copy stack to index i in list
  • #get_list(listname): return full list
  • #set_list(listname, list): set full list (size will not change)
  • #get_lists(): returns list of inventory lists
  • #set_lists(lists): sets inventory lists (size will not change)
  • #add_item(listname, stack): add item somewhere in list, returns leftover ItemStack.
  • #room_for_item(listname, stack): returns true if the stack of items can be fully added to the list
  • #contains_item(listname, stack, [match_meta]): returns true if the stack of items can be fully taken from the list. If match_meta is false, only the items' names are compared (default: false).
  • #remove_item(listname, stack): take as many items as specified from the list, returns the items that were actually removed (as an ItemStack) -- note that any item metadata is ignored, so attempting to remove a specific unique item this way will likely remove the wrong one -- to do that use set_stack with an empty ItemStack.
  • #get_location(): returns a location compatible to minetest.get_inventory(location).
    • #returns {type="undefined"} in case location is not known

AreaStore

A fast access data structure to store areas, and find areas near a given position or area. Every area has a data string attribute to store additional information. You can create an empty AreaStore by calling AreaStore(), or AreaStore(type_name). If you chose the parameter-less constructor, a fast implementation will be automatically chosen for you.

Methods

  • #get_area(id, include_borders, include_data): returns the area with the id id. (optional) Boolean values include_borders and include_data control what's copied. Returns nil if specified area id does not exist.
  • #get_areas_for_pos(pos, include_borders, include_data): returns all areas that contain the position pos. (optional) Boolean values include_borders and include_data control what's copied.
  • #get_areas_in_area(edge1, edge2, accept_overlap, include_borders, include_data): returns all areas that contain all nodes inside the area specified by edge1 and edge2 (inclusive). If accept_overlap is true, also areas are returned that have nodes in common with the specified area. (optional) Boolean values include_borders and include_data control what's copied.
  • #insert_area(edge1, edge2, data, [id]): inserts an area into the store. Returns the new area's ID, or nil if the insertion failed. The (inclusive) positions edge1 and edge2 describe the area. data is a string stored with the area. If passed, id will be used as the internal area ID, it must be a unique number between 0 and 2^32-2. If you use the id parameter you must always use it, or insertions are likely to fail due to conflicts.
  • #reserve(count): reserves resources for at most count many contained areas. Only needed for efficiency, and only some implementations profit.
  • #remove_area(id): removes the area with the given id from the store, returns success.
  • #set_cache_params(params): sets params for the included prefiltering cache. Calling invalidates the cache, so that its elements have to be newly generated.
    • #params: { enabled = boolean, -- whether to enable, default true block_radius = number, -- the radius (in nodes) of the areas the cache generates prefiltered lists for, minimum 16, default 64. limit = number, -- the cache's size, minimum 20, default 1000 }
  • #to_string(): Experimental. Returns area store serialized as a (binary) string.
  • #to_file(filename): Experimental. Like to_string(), but writes the data to a file.
  • #from_string(str): Experimental. Deserializes string and loads it into the AreaStore. Returns success and, optionally, an error message.
  • #from_file(filename): Experimental. Like from_string(), but reads the data from a file.

ItemStack

An ItemStack is a stack of items.

It can be created via ItemStack(x), where x is an ItemStack, an itemstring, a table or nil.

Methods

  • #is_empty(): returns true if stack is empty.
  • #get_name(): returns item name (e.g. "default:stone").
  • #set_name(item_name): returns a boolean indicating whether the item was cleared.
  • #get_count(): Returns number of items on the stack.
  • #set_count(count): returns a boolean indicating whether the item was cleared
    • #count: number, unsigned 16 bit integer
  • #get_wear(): returns tool wear (0-65535), 0 for non-tools.
  • #set_wear(wear): returns boolean indicating whether item was cleared
    • #wear: number, unsigned 16 bit integer
  • #get_meta(): returns ItemStackMetaRef. See section for more details
  • #get_metadata(): (DEPRECATED) Returns metadata (a string attached to an item stack).
  • #set_metadata(metadata): (DEPRECATED) Returns true.
  • #clear(): removes all items from the stack, making it empty.
  • #replace(item): replace the contents of this stack.
    • #item can also be an itemstring or table.
  • #to_string(): returns the stack in itemstring form.
  • #to_table(): returns the stack in Lua table form.
  • #get_stack_max(): returns the maximum size of the stack (depends on the item).
  • #get_free_space(): returns get_stack_max() - get_count().
  • #is_known(): returns true if the item name refers to a defined item type.
  • #get_definition(): returns the item definition table.
  • #get_tool_capabilities(): returns the digging properties of the item, or those of the hand if none are defined for this item type
  • #add_wear(amount)
    • #Increases wear by amount if the item is a tool
    • #amount: number, integer
  • #add_item(item): returns leftover ItemStack
    • Put some item or stack onto this stack
  • #item_fits(item): returns true if item or stack can be fully added to this one.
  • #take_item(n): returns taken ItemStack
    • #Take (and remove) up to n items from this stack
    • #n: number, default: 1
  • #peek_item(n): returns taken ItemStack
    • #Copy (don't remove) up to n items from this stack
    • #n: number, default: 1

PseudoRandom

A 16-bit pseudorandom number generator. Uses a well-known LCG algorithm introduced by K&R.

It can be created via PseudoRandom(seed).

Methods

  • #next(): return next integer random number [0...32767]
  • #next(min, max): return next integer random number [min...max]
    • #((max - min) == 32767) or ((max-min) <= 6553)) must be true due to the simple implementation making bad distribution otherwise.

PcgRandom

A 32-bit pseudorandom number generator. Uses PCG32, an algorithm of the permuted congruential generator family, offering very strong randomness.

It can be created via PcgRandom(seed) or PcgRandom(seed, sequence).

Methods

  • #next(): return next integer random number [-2147483648...2147483647]
  • #next(min, max): return next integer random number [min...max]
  • #rand_normal_dist(min, max, num_trials=6): return normally distributed random number [min...max].
    • This is only a rough approximation of a normal distribution with:
    • #mean = (max - min) / 2, and
    • #variance = (((max - min + 1) ^ 2) - 1) / (12 * num_trials)
    • #Increasing num_trials improves accuracy of the approximation

SecureRandom

Interface for the operating system's crypto-secure PRNG.

It can be created via SecureRandom(). The constructor returns nil if a secure random device cannot be found on the system.

Methods

  • #next_bytes([count]): return next count (default 1, capped at 2048) many random bytes, as a string.

PerlinNoise

A perlin noise generator. It can be created via PerlinNoise(seed, octaves, persistence, scale) or PerlinNoise(noiseparams). Alternatively with minetest.get_perlin(seeddiff, octaves, persistence, scale) or minetest.get_perlin(noiseparams).

Methods

  • #get_2d(pos): returns 2D noise value at pos={x=,y=}
  • #get_3d(pos): returns 3D noise value at pos={x=,y=,z=}

PerlinNoiseMap

A fast, bulk perlin noise generator.

It can be created via PerlinNoiseMap(noiseparams, size) or minetest.get_perlin_map(noiseparams, size).

Format of size is {x=dimx, y=dimy, z=dimz}. The z component is omitted for 2D noise, and it must be must be larger than 1 for 3D noise (otherwise nil is returned).

For each of the functions with an optional buffer parameter: If buffer is not nil, this table will be used to store the result instead of creating a new table.

Methods

  • #get_2d_map(pos): returns a <size.x> times <size.y> 2D array of 2D noise with values starting at pos={x=,y=}
  • #get_3d_map(pos): returns a <size.x> times <size.y> times <size.z> 3D array of 3D noise with values starting at pos={x=,y=,z=}.
  • #get_2d_map_flat(pos, buffer): returns a flat <size.x * size.y> element array of 2D noise with values starting at pos={x=,y=}
  • #get_3d_map_flat(pos, buffer): Same as get2dMap_flat, but 3D noise
  • #calc_2d_map(pos): Calculates the 2d noise map starting at pos. The result is stored internally.
  • #calc_3d_map(pos): Calculates the 3d noise map starting at pos. The result is stored internally.
  • #get_map_slice(slice_offset, slice_size, buffer): In the form of an array, returns a slice of the most recently computed noise results. The result slice begins at coordinates slice_offset and takes a chunk of slice_size. E.g. to grab a 2-slice high horizontal 2d plane of noise starting at buffer offset y = 20: noisevals = noise:get_map_slice({y=20}, {y=2}) It is important to note that slice_offset offset coordinates begin at 1, and are relative to the starting position of the most recently calculated noise. To grab a single vertical column of noise starting at map coordinates x = 1023, y=1000, z = 1000: noise:calc_3d_map({x=1000, y=1000, z=1000}) noisevals = noise:get_map_slice({x=24, z=1}, {x=1, z=1})

VoxelManip

About VoxelManip

VoxelManip is a scripting interface to the internal 'Map Voxel Manipulator' facility. The purpose of this object is for fast, low-level, bulk access to reading and writing Map content. As such, setting map nodes through VoxelManip will lack many of the higher level features and concepts you may be used to with other methods of setting nodes. For example, nodes will not have their construction and destruction callbacks run, and no rollback information is logged.

It is important to note that VoxelManip is designed for speed, and not ease of use or flexibility. If your mod requires a map manipulation facility that will handle 100% of all edge cases, or the use of high level node placement features, perhaps minetest.set_node() is better suited for the job.

In addition, VoxelManip might not be faster, or could even be slower, for your specific use case. VoxelManip is most effective when setting large areas of map at once - for example, if only setting a 3x3x3 node area, a minetest.set_node() loop may be more optimal. Always profile code using both methods of map manipulation to determine which is most appropriate for your usage.

A recent simple test of setting cubic areas showed that minetest.set_node() is faster than a VoxelManip for a 3x3x3 node cube or smaller.

Using VoxelManip

A VoxelManip object can be created any time using either: VoxelManip([p1, p2]), or minetest.get_voxel_manip([p1, p2]).

If the optional position parameters are present for either of these routines, the specified region will be pre-loaded into the VoxelManip object on creation. Otherwise, the area of map you wish to manipulate must first be loaded into the VoxelManip object using VoxelManip:read_from_map().

Note that VoxelManip:read_from_map() returns two position vectors. The region formed by these positions indicate the minimum and maximum (respectively) positions of the area actually loaded in the VoxelManip, which may be larger than the area requested. For convenience, the loaded area coordinates can also be queried any time after loading map data with VoxelManip:get_emerged_area().

Now that the VoxelManip object is populated with map data, your mod can fetch a copy of this data using either of two methods. VoxelManip:get_node_at(), which retrieves an individual node in a MapNode formatted table at the position requested is the simplest method to use, but also the slowest.

Nodes in a VoxelManip object may also be read in bulk to a flat array table using:

  • #VoxelManip:get_data() for node content (in Content ID form, see section 'Content IDs'),
  • #VoxelManip:get_light_data() for node light levels, and
  • #VoxelManip:get_param2_data() for the node type-dependent "param2" values.

See section 'Flat array format' for more details.

It is very important to understand that the tables returned by any of the above three functions represent a snapshot of the VoxelManip's internal state at the time of the call. This copy of the data will not magically update itself if another function modifies the internal VoxelManip state. Any functions that modify a VoxelManip's contents work on the VoxelManip's internal state unless otherwise explicitly stated.

Once the bulk data has been edited to your liking, the internal VoxelManip state can be set using:

  • #VoxelManip:set_data() for node content (in Content ID form, see section 'Content IDs'),
  • #VoxelManip:set_light_data() for node light levels, and
  • #VoxelManip:set_param2_data() for the node type-dependent param2 values.

The parameter to each of the above three functions can use any table at all in the same flat array format as produced by get_data() etc. and is not required to be a table retrieved from get_data().

Once the internal VoxelManip state has been modified to your liking, the changes can be committed back to the map by calling VoxelManip:write_to_map()

Flat array format

Let Nx = p2.X - p1.X + 1, Ny = p2.Y - p1.Y + 1, and Nz = p2.Z - p1.Z + 1.

Then, for a loaded region of p1..p2, this array ranges from 1 up to and including the value of the expression Nx * Ny * Nz.

Positions offset from p1 are present in the array with the format of:

[ (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), (2, 0, 0), ... (Nx, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (1, 1, 0), (2, 1, 0), ... (Nx, 1, 0), ... (0, Ny, 0), (1, Ny, 0), (2, Ny, 0), ... (Nx, Ny, 0), (0, 0, 1), (1, 0, 1), (2, 0, 1), ... (Nx, 0, 1), ... (0, Ny, 2), (1, Ny, 2), (2, Ny, 2), ... (Nx, Ny, 2), ... (0, Ny, Nz), (1, Ny, Nz), (2, Ny, Nz), ... (Nx, Ny, Nz) ]

and the array index for a position p contained completely in p1..p2 is:

(p.Z - p1.Z) * Ny * Nx + (p.Y - p1.Y) * Nx + (p.X - p1.X) + 1

Note that this is the same "flat 3D array" format as PerlinNoiseMap:get3dMap_flat(). VoxelArea objects (see section 'VoxelArea') can be used to simplify calculation of the index for a single point in a flat VoxelManip array.

Content IDs

A Content ID is a unique integer identifier for a specific node type. These IDs are used by VoxelManip in place of the node name string for VoxelManip:get_data() and VoxelManip:set_data(). You can use minetest.get_content_id() to look up the Content ID for the specified node name, and minetest.get_name_from_content_id() to look up the node name string for a given Content ID. After registration of a node, its Content ID will remain the same throughout execution of the mod. Note that the node being queried needs to have already been been registered.

The following builtin node types have their Content IDs defined as constants:

  • #minetest.CONTENT_UNKNOWN: ID for "unknown" nodes
  • #minetest.CONTENT_AIR: ID for "air" nodes
  • #minetest.CONTENT_IGNORE: ID for "ignore" nodes
Mapgen VoxelManip objects

Inside of on_generated() callbacks, it is possible to retrieve the same VoxelManip object used by the core's Map Generator (commonly abbreviated Mapgen). Most of the rules previously described still apply but with a few differences:

  • #The Mapgen VoxelManip object is retrieved using: minetest.get_mapgen_object("voxelmanip")
  • #This VoxelManip object already has the region of map just generated loaded into it; it's not necessary to call VoxelManip:read_from_map() before using a Mapgen VoxelManip.
  • #The on_generated() callbacks of some mods may place individual nodes in the generated area using non-VoxelManip map modification methods. Because the same Mapgen VoxelManip object is passed through each on_generated() callback, it becomes necessary for the Mapgen VoxelManip object to maintain consistency with the current map state. For this reason, calling any of the following functions: minetest.add_node(), minetest.set_node(), or minetest.swap_node() will also update the Mapgen VoxelManip object's internal state active on the current thread.
  • #After modifying the Mapgen VoxelManip object's internal buffer, it may be necessary to update lighting information using either: VoxelManip:calc_lighting() or VoxelManip:set_lighting().
Other API functions operating on a VoxelManip

If any VoxelManip contents were set to a liquid node, VoxelManip:update_liquids() must be called for these liquid nodes to begin flowing. It is recommended to call this function only after having written all buffered data back to the VoxelManip object, save for special situations where the modder desires to only have certain liquid nodes begin flowing.

The functions minetest.generate_ores() and minetest.generate_decorations() will generate all registered decorations and ores throughout the full area inside of the specified VoxelManip object.

minetest.place_schematic_on_vmanip() is otherwise identical to minetest.place_schematic(), except instead of placing the specified schematic directly on the map at the specified position, it will place the schematic inside the VoxelManip.

Notes
  • #Attempting to read data from a VoxelManip object before map is read will result in a zero-length array table for VoxelManip:get_data(), and an "ignore" node at any position for VoxelManip:get_node_at().
  • If either a region of map has not yet been generated or is out-of-bounds of the map, that region is filled with "ignore" nodes.
  • Other mods, or the core itself, could possibly modify the area of map currently loaded into a VoxelManip object. With the exception of Mapgen VoxelManips (see above section), the internal buffers are not updated. For this reason, it is strongly encouraged to complete the usage of a particular VoxelManip object in the same callback it had been created.
  • #If a VoxelManip object will be used often, such as in an on_generated() callback, consider passing a file-scoped table as the optional parameter to VoxelManip:get_data(), which serves as a static buffer the function can use to write map data to instead of returning a new table each call. This greatly enhances performance by avoiding unnecessary memory allocations.

Methods

  • #read_from_map(p1, p2): Loads a chunk of map into the VoxelManip object containing the region formed by p1 and p2.
    • #returns actual emerged pmin, actual emerged pmax
  • #write_to_map([light]): Writes the data loaded from the VoxelManip back to the map.
    • #important: data must be set using VoxelManip:set_data() before calling this.
    • #if light is true, then lighting is automatically recalculated. The default value is true. If light is false, no light calculations happen, and you should correct all modified blocks with minetest.fix_light() as soon as possible. Keep in mind that modifying the map where light is incorrect can cause more lighting bugs.
  • #get_node_at(pos): Returns a MapNode table of the node currently loaded in the VoxelManip at that position
  • #set_node_at(pos, node): Sets a specific MapNode in the VoxelManip at that position.
  • #get_data([buffer]): Retrieves the node content data loaded into the VoxelManip object.
    • returns raw node data in the form of an array of node content IDs
    • #if the param buffer is present, this table will be used to store the result instead.
  • #set_data(data): Sets the data contents of the VoxelManip object
  • #update_map(): Does nothing, kept for compatibility.
  • #set_lighting(light, [p1, p2]): Set the lighting within the VoxelManip to a uniform value.
    • #light is a table, {day=<0...15>, night=<0...15>}
    • #To be used only by a VoxelManip object from minetest.get_mapgen_object.
    • #(p1, p2) is the area in which lighting is set, defaults to the whole area if left out.
  • #get_light_data(): Gets the light data read into the VoxelManip object
    • #Returns an array (indices 1 to volume) of integers ranging from 0 to 255.
    • #Each value is the bitwise combination of day and night light values (0 to 15 each).
    • #light = day + (night * 16)
  • #set_light_data(light_data): Sets the param1 (light) contents of each node in the VoxelManip.
    • #expects lighting data in the same format that get_light_data() returns
  • #get_param2_data([buffer]): Gets the raw param2 data read into the VoxelManip object.
    • #Returns an array (indices 1 to volume) of integers ranging from 0 to 255.
    • #If the param buffer is present, this table will be used to store the result instead.
  • #set_param2_data(param2_data): Sets the param2 contents of each node in the VoxelManip.
  • #calc_lighting([p1, p2], [propagate_shadow]): Calculate lighting within the VoxelManip.
    • #To be used only by a VoxelManip object from minetest.get_mapgen_object.
    • #(p1, p2) is the area in which lighting is set, defaults to the whole area if left out or nil.
    • #propagate_shadow is an optional boolean deciding whether shadows in a generated mapchunk above are propagated down into the mapchunk, defaults to true if left out.
  • #update_liquids(): Update liquid flow
  • #was_modified(): Returns true or false if the data in the voxel manipulator had been modified since the last read from map, due to a call to minetest.set_data() on the loaded area elsewhere.
  • #get_emerged_area(): Returns actual emerged minimum and maximum positions.

VoxelArea

A helper class for voxel areas. It can be created via VoxelArea:new{MinEdge=pmin, MaxEdge=pmax}. The coordinates are inclusive, like most other things in Minetest.

Methods

  • #getExtent(): returns a 3D vector containing the size of the area formed by MinEdge and MaxEdge.
  • #getVolume(): returns the volume of the area formed by MinEdge and MaxEdge.
  • #index(x, y, z): returns the index of an absolute position in a flat array starting at 1.
    • #useful for things like VoxelManip, raw Schematic specifiers, PerlinNoiseMap:get2d/3dMap, and so on.
  • #indexp(p): same as above, except takes a vector
  • #position(i): returns the absolute position vector corresponding to index i.
  • #contains(x, y, z): check if (x,y,z) is inside area formed by MinEdge and MaxEdge.
  • #containsp(p): same as above, except takes a vector
  • #containsi(i): same as above, except takes an index i
  • #iter(minx, miny, minz, maxx, maxy, maxz): returns an iterator that returns indices.
    • #from (minx,miny,minz) to (maxx,maxy,maxz) in the order of [z [y [x]]].
  • #iterp(minp, maxp): same as above, except takes a vector

Settings

An interface to read config files in the format of minetest.conf.

It can be created via Settings(filename).

Methods

  • #get(key): returns a value
  • #get_bool(key, [default]): returns a boolean
    • #default is the value returned if key is not found.
    • #Returns nil if key is not found and default not specified.
  • #get_np_group(key): returns a NoiseParams table
  • #set(key, value)
    • Setting names can't contain whitespace or any of ="{}#.
    • #Setting values can't contain the sequence \n""".
    • #Setting names starting with "secure." can't be set on the main settings object (minetest.settings).
  • #set_bool(key, value)
    • See documentation for set() above.
  • #set_np_group(key, value)
    • #value is a NoiseParams table.
    • Also, see documentation for set() above.
  • #remove(key): returns a boolean (true for success)
  • #get_names(): returns {key1,...}
  • #write(): returns a boolean (true for success)
    • Writes changes to file.
  • #to_table(): returns {[key1]=value1,...}

Raycast

A raycast on the map. It works with selection boxes. Can be used as an iterator in a for loop.

The map is loaded as the ray advances. If the map is modified after the Raycast is created, the changes may or may not have an effect on the object.

It can be created via Raycast(pos1, pos2, objects, liquids) or minetest.raycast(pos1, pos2, objects, liquids) where: pos1: start of the ray pos2: end of the ray objects : if false, only nodes will be returned. Default is true. `liquids' : if false, liquid nodes won't be returned. Default is false.

Methods

  • #next(): returns a pointed_thing
    • Returns the next thing pointed by the ray or nil.

Mapgen objects

A mapgen object is a construct used in map generation. Mapgen objects can be used by an on_generate callback to speed up operations by avoiding unnecessary recalculations, these can be retrieved using the minetest.get_mapgen_object() function. If the requested Mapgen object is unavailable, or get_mapgen_object() was called outside of an on_generate() callback, nil is returned.

The following Mapgen objects are currently available:

voxelmanip

This returns three values; the VoxelManip object to be used, minimum and maximum emerged position, in that order. All mapgens support this object.

heightmap

Returns an array containing the y coordinates of the ground levels of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by the current mapgen.

biomemap

Returns an array containing the biome IDs of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by the current mapgen.

heatmap

Returns an array containing the temperature values of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by the current mapgen.

humiditymap

Returns an array containing the humidity values of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by the current mapgen.

gennotify

Returns a table mapping requested generation notification types to arrays of positions at which the corresponding generated structures are located within the current chunk. To set the capture of positions of interest to be recorded on generate, use minetest.set_gen_notify(). For decorations, the returned positions are the ground surface 'place_on' nodes, not the decorations themselves. A 'simple' type decoration is often 1 node above the returned position and possibly displaced by 'place_offset_y'.

Possible fields of the table returned are:

  • #dungeon
  • #temple
  • #cave_begin
  • #cave_end
  • #large_cave_begin
  • #large_cave_end
  • #decoration

Decorations have a key in the format of "decoration#id", where id is the numeric unique decoration ID.

Registered entities

  • #Functions receive a "luaentity" as self:
    • #It has the member .name, which is the registered name ("mod:thing")
    • #It has the member .object, which is an ObjectRef pointing to the object.
    • The original prototype stuff is visible directly via a metatable
  • #Callbacks:
    • #on_activate(self, staticdata, dtime_s)
      • Called when the object is instantiated.
      • #dtime_s is the time passed since the object was unloaded, which can be used for updating the entity state.
    • #on_step(self, dtime)
      • #Called on every server tick, after movement and collision processing. dtime is usually 0.1 seconds, as per the dedicated_server_step setting in minetest.conf.
    • #on_punch(self, puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, dir)
      • Called when somebody punches the object.
      • Note that you probably want to handle most punches using the automatic armor group system.
      • #puncher: an ObjectRef (can be nil)
      • #time_from_last_punch: Meant for disallowing spamming of clicks (can be nil).
      • #tool_capabilities: capability table of used tool (can be nil)
      • #dir: unit vector of direction of punch. Always defined. Points from the puncher to the punched.
    • #on_death(self, killer)
      • Called when the object dies.
      • #killer: an ObjectRef (can be nil)
    • #on_rightclick(self, clicker)
    • #get_staticdata(self)
      • #Should return a string that will be passed to on_activate when the object is instantiated the next time.

L-system trees

Tree definition

treedef={
    axiom,         --string  initial tree axiom
    rules_a,       --string  rules set A
    rules_b,       --string  rules set B
    rules_c,       --string  rules set C
    rules_d,       --string  rules set D
    trunk,         --string  trunk node name
    leaves,        --string  leaves node name
    leaves2,       --string  secondary leaves node name
    leaves2_chance,--num     chance (0-100) to replace leaves with leaves2
    angle,         --num     angle in deg
    iterations,    --num     max # of iterations, usually 2 -5
    random_level,  --num     factor to lower nr of iterations, usually 0 - 3
    trunk_type,    --string  single/double/crossed) type of trunk: 1 node,
                   --        2x2 nodes or 3x3 in cross shape
    thin_branches, --boolean true -> use thin (1 node) branches
    fruit,         --string  fruit node name
    fruit_chance,  --num     chance (0-100) to replace leaves with fruit node
    seed,          --num     random seed, if no seed is provided, the engine
                             will create one.
}

Key for Special L-System Symbols used in Axioms

  • #G: move forward one unit with the pen up
  • #F: move forward one unit with the pen down drawing trunks and branches
  • #f: move forward one unit with the pen down drawing leaves (100% chance)
  • #T: move forward one unit with the pen down drawing trunks only
  • #R: move forward one unit with the pen down placing fruit
  • #A: replace with rules set A
  • #B: replace with rules set B
  • #C: replace with rules set C
  • #D: replace with rules set D
  • #a: replace with rules set A, chance 90%
  • #b: replace with rules set B, chance 80%
  • #c: replace with rules set C, chance 70%
  • #d: replace with rules set D, chance 60%
  • +: yaw the turtle right by angle parameter
  • -: yaw the turtle left by angle parameter
  • &: pitch the turtle down by angle parameter
  • ^: pitch the turtle up by angle parameter
  • /: roll the turtle to the right by angle parameter
  • *: roll the turtle to the left by angle parameter
  • [: save in stack current state info
  • ]: recover from stack state info

Example

Spawn a small apple tree:

pos = {x=230,y=20,z=4}
apple_tree={
    axiom="FFFFFAFFBF",
    rules_a="[&&&FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&++++FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&----FFFFF&&FFFF]",
    rules_b="[&&&++FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&--FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&------FFFFF&&FFFF]",
    trunk="default:tree",
    leaves="default:leaves",
    angle=30,
    iterations=2,
    random_level=0,
    trunk_type="single",
    thin_branches=true,
    fruit_chance=10,
    fruit="default:apple"
}
minetest.spawn_tree(pos,apple_tree)

Definition tables

Object Properties

{
    hp_max = 1,
--  ^ For players: Defaults to `minetest.PLAYER_MAX_HP_DEFAULT`
    breath_max = 0,
--  ^ For players only. Defaults to `minetest.PLAYER_MAX_BREATH_DEFAULT`
    zoom_fov = 0.0,
--  ^ For players only. Zoom FOV in degrees.
--    Note that zoom loads and/or generates world beyond the server's
--    maximum send and generate distances, so acts like a telescope.
--    Smaller zoomFOV values increase the distance loaded and/or generated.
--    Defaults to 15 in creative mode, 0 in survival mode.
--    zoom_fov = 0 disables zooming for the player.
    eye_height = 1.625,
--  ^ For players only. Camera height above feet position in nodes.
--    Defaults to 1.625.
    physical = true,
    collide_with_objects = true,
--  ^ Collide with other objects if physical = true.
    weight = 5,
    collisionbox = {-0.5, 0.0, -0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 0.5},
    selectionbox = {-0.5, 0.0, -0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 0.5},
--  ^ Default, uses collision box dimensions when not set.
--  ^ For both boxes: {xmin, ymin, zmin, xmax, ymax, zmax} in nodes from
--    object position.
    pointable = true,
--  ^ Overrides selection box when false.
    visual = "cube" / "sprite" / "upright_sprite" / "mesh" / "wielditem",
--  ^ "cube" is a node-sized cube.
--  ^ "sprite" is a flat texture always facing the player.
--  ^ "upright_sprite" is a vertical flat texture.
--  ^ "mesh" uses the defined mesh model.
--  ^ "wielditem" is used for dropped items
--    (see builtin/game/item_entity.lua).
--    For this use 'textures = {itemname}'.
--    If the item has a 'wield_image' the object will be an extrusion of
--    that, otherwise:
--    If 'itemname' is a cubic node or nodebox the object will appear
--    identical to 'itemname'.
--    If 'itemname' is a plantlike node the object will be an extrusion of
--    its texture.
--    Otherwise for non-node items, the object will be an extrusion of
--    'inventory_image'.
    visual_size = {x = 1, y = 1},
--  ^ `x` multiplies horizontal (X and Z) visual size.
--  ^ `y` multiplies vertical (Y) visual size.
    mesh = "model",
    textures = {},
--  ^ Number of required textures depends on visual.
--  ^ "cube" uses 6 textures in the way a node does.
--  ^ "sprite" uses 1 texture.
--  ^ "upright_sprite" uses 2 textures: {front, back}.
--  ^ "wielditem" expects 'textures = {itemname}' (see 'visual' above).
    colors = {},
--  ^ Number of required colors depends on visual.
    use_texture_alpha = false,
--  ^ Use texture's alpha channel, excludes "upright_sprite" and "wielditem"
--  ^ Note: currently causes visual issues when viewed through other
--  ^ semi-transparent materials such as water.
    spritediv = {x = 1, y = 1},
--  ^ Used with spritesheet textures for animation and/or frame selection
--    according to position relative to player.
--  ^ Defines the number of columns and rows in the spritesheet:
--    {columns, rows}.
    initial_sprite_basepos = {x = 0, y = 0},
--  ^ Used with spritesheet textures.
--  ^ Defines the {column, row} position of the initially used frame in the
--    spritesheet.
    is_visible = true,
    makes_footstep_sound = false,
    automatic_rotate = 0,
--  ^ Set constant rotation in radians per second, positive or negative.
--  ^ Set to 0 to disable constant rotation.
    stepheight = 0,
    automatic_face_movement_dir = 0.0,
--  ^ Automatically set yaw to movement direction, offset in degrees,
--    'false' to disable.
    automatic_face_movement_max_rotation_per_sec = -1,
--  ^ Limit automatic rotation to this value in degrees per second,
--    value < 0 no limit.
    backface_culling = true,
--  ^ Set to false to disable backface_culling for model.
    glow = 0,
--  ^ Add this much extra lighting when calculating texture color.
--    Value < 0 disables light's effect on texture color.
--    For faking self-lighting, UI style entities, or programmatic coloring
--    in mods.
    nametag = "",
--  ^ By default empty, for players their name is shown if empty.
    nametag_color = <color>,
--  ^ Sets color of nametag as ColorSpec.
    infotext = "",
--  ^ By default empty, text to be shown when pointed at object.
    static_save = true,
--  ^ If false, never save this object statically. It will simply be
--    deleted when the block gets unloaded.
--    The get_staticdata() callback is never called then.
--    Defaults to 'true'
}

Entity definition (register_entity)

{
--  Deprecated: Everything in object properties is read directly from here

    initial_properties = --[[<initial object properties>]],

    on_activate = function(self, staticdata, dtime_s),
    on_step = function(self, dtime),
    on_punch = function(self, puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, dir),
    on_rightclick = function(self, clicker),
    get_staticdata = function(self),
--  ^ Called sometimes; the string returned is passed to on_activate when
--    the entity is re-activated from static state

    _custom_field = whatever,
--  ^ You can define arbitrary member variables here (see item definition
--    for more info) by using a '_' prefix.
}

ABM (ActiveBlockModifier) definition (register_abm)

{
    label = "Lava cooling",
    ^ Descriptive label for profiling purposes (optional).
      Definitions with identical labels will be listed as one.
    nodenames = {"default:lava_source"},
    ^ Apply `action` function to these nodes.
    ^ `group:groupname` can also be used here.
    neighbors = {"default:water_source", "default:water_flowing"},
    ^ Only apply `action` to nodes that have one of, or any
      combination of, these neighbors.
    ^ If left out or empty, any neighbor will do.
    ^ `group:groupname` can also be used here.
    interval = 1.0,
    ^ Operation interval in seconds.
    chance = 1,
    ^ Chance of triggering `action` per-node per-interval is 1.0 / this
      value.
    catch_up = true,
    ^ If true, catch-up behaviour is enabled: The `chance` value is
      temporarily reduced when returning to an area to simulate time lost
      by the area being unattended. Note that the `chance` value can often
      be reduced to 1.
    action = function(pos, node, active_object_count, active_object_count_wider),
    ^ Function triggered for each qualifying node.
    ^ `active_object_count` is number of active objects in the node's
      mapblock.
    ^ `active_object_count_wider` is number of active objects in the node's
      mapblock plus all 26 neighboring mapblocks. If any neighboring
      mapblocks are unloaded an estmate is calculated for them based on
      loaded mapblocks.
}

LBM (LoadingBlockModifier) definition (register_lbm)

{
    label = "Upgrade legacy doors",
--  ^ Descriptive label for profiling purposes (optional).
--    Definitions with identical labels will be listed as one.
    name = "modname:replace_legacy_door",
    nodenames = {"default:lava_source"},
--  ^ List of node names to trigger the LBM on.
--    Also non-registered nodes will work.
--    Groups (as of group:groupname) will work as well.
    run_at_every_load = false,
--  ^ Whether to run the LBM's action every time a block gets loaded,
--    and not just for blocks that were saved last time before LBMs were
--    introduced to the world.
    action = func(pos, node),
}

Item definition (register_node, register_craftitem, register_tool)

{
    description = "Steel Axe",
    groups = {}, -- key = name, value = rating; rating = 1..3.
                    if rating not applicable, use 1.
                    e.g. {wool = 1, fluffy = 3}
                        {soil = 2, outerspace = 1, crumbly = 1}
                        {bendy = 2, snappy = 1},
                        {hard = 1, metal = 1, spikes = 1}
    inventory_image = "default_tool_steelaxe.png",
    inventory_overlay = "overlay.png",
    ^ An overlay which does not get colorized.
    wield_image = "",
    wield_overlay = "",
    palette = "",
    --[[
    ^ An image file containing the palette of a node.
    ^ You can set the currently used color as the
    ^ "palette_index" field of the item stack metadata.
    ^ The palette is always stretched to fit indices
    ^ between 0 and 255, to ensure compatibility with
    ^ "colorfacedir" and "colorwallmounted" nodes.
    ]]
    color = "0xFFFFFFFF",
    ^ The color of the item. The palette overrides this.
    wield_scale = {x = 1, y = 1, z = 1},
    stack_max = 99,
    range = 4.0,
    liquids_pointable = false,
    tool_capabilities = {
        full_punch_interval = 1.0,
        max_drop_level = 0,
        groupcaps = {
            -- For example:
            choppy = {times = {[1] = 2.50, [2] = 1.40, [3] = 1.00},
                     uses = 20, maxlevel = 2},
        },
        damage_groups = {groupname = damage},
    },
    node_placement_prediction = nil,
    --[[
    ^ If nil and item is node, prediction is made automatically
    ^ If nil and item is not a node, no prediction is made
    ^ If "" and item is anything, no prediction is made
    ^ Otherwise should be name of node which the client immediately places
      on ground when the player places the item. Server will always update
      actual result to client in a short moment.
    ]]
    node_dig_prediction = "air",
    --[[
    ^ if "", no prediction is made
    ^ if "air", node is removed
    ^ Otherwise should be name of node which the client immediately places
      upon digging. Server will always update actual result shortly.
    ]]
    sound = {
        breaks = "default_tool_break", -- tools only
        place = --[[<SimpleSoundSpec>]],
    },

    on_place = func(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing),
    --[[
    ^ Shall place item and return the leftover itemstack
    ^ The placer may be any ObjectRef or nil.
    ^ default: minetest.item_place ]]
    on_secondary_use = func(itemstack, user, pointed_thing),
    --[[
    ^ Same as on_place but called when pointing at nothing.
    ^ The user may be any ObjectRef or nil.
    ^ pointed_thing : always { type = "nothing" }
    ]]
    on_drop = func(itemstack, dropper, pos),
    --[[
    ^ Shall drop item and return the leftover itemstack
    ^ The dropper may be any ObjectRef or nil.
    ^ default: minetest.item_drop ]]
    on_use = func(itemstack, user, pointed_thing),
    --[[
    ^  default: nil
    ^ Function must return either nil if no item shall be removed from
      inventory, or an itemstack to replace the original itemstack.
      e.g. itemstack:take_item(); return itemstack
    ^ Otherwise, the function is free to do what it wants.
    ^ The user may be any ObjectRef or nil.
    ^ The default functions handle regular use cases.
    ]]
    after_use = func(itemstack, user, node, digparams),
    --[[
    ^  default: nil
    ^ If defined, should return an itemstack and will be called instead of
      wearing out the tool. If returns nil, does nothing.
      If after_use doesn't exist, it is the same as:
        function(itemstack, user, node, digparams)
          itemstack:add_wear(digparams.wear)
          return itemstack
        end
    ^ The user may be any ObjectRef or nil.
    ]]
    _custom_field = whatever,
    --[[
    ^ Add your own custom fields. By convention, all custom field names
      should start with `_` to avoid naming collisions with future engine
      usage.
    ]]
}

Tile definition

  • #"image.png"
  • #{name="image.png", animation={Tile Animation definition}}
  • #{name="image.png", backface_culling=bool, tileable_vertical=bool, tileable_horizontal=bool, align_style="node"/"world"/"user", scale=int}
    • backface culling enabled by default for most nodes
    • tileable flags are info for shaders, how they should treat texture when displacement mapping is used Directions are from the point of view of the tile texture, not the node it's on
    • #align style determines whether the texture will be rotated with the node or kept aligned with its surroundings. "user" means that client setting will be used, similar to glasslike_framed_optional. Note: supported by solid nodes and nodeboxes only.
    • #scale is used to make texture span several (exactly scale) nodes, instead of just one, in each direction. Works for world-aligned textures only. Note that as the effect is applied on per-mapblock basis, 16 should be equally divisible by scale or you may get wrong results.
  • #{name="image.png", color=ColorSpec}
    • the texture's color will be multiplied with this color.
    • the tile's color overrides the owning node's color in all cases.
  • #deprecated, yet still supported field names:
    • #image (name)

Tile animation definition

{
    type = "vertical_frames",
    aspect_w = 16,
    -- ^ specify width of a frame in pixels
    aspect_h = 16,
    -- ^ specify height of a frame in pixels
    length = 3.0,
    -- ^ specify full loop length
}

{
    type = "sheet_2d",
    frames_w = 5,
    -- ^ specify width in number of frames
    frames_h = 3,
    -- ^ specify height in number of frames
    frame_length = 0.5,
    -- ^ specify length of a single frame
}

Node definition (register_node)

{
    -- <all fields allowed in item definitions>,

    drawtype = "normal", -- See "Node drawtypes"
    visual_scale = 1.0, --[[
    ^ Supported for drawtypes "plantlike", "signlike", "torchlike",
    ^ "firelike", "mesh".
    ^ For plantlike and firelike, the image will start at the bottom of the
    ^ node, for the other drawtypes the image will be centered on the node.
    ^ Note that positioning for "torchlike" may still change. ]]
    tiles = {tile definition 1, def2, def3, def4, def5, def6}, --[[
    ^ Textures of node; +Y, -Y, +X, -X, +Z, -Z
    ^ Old field name was 'tile_images'.
    ^ List can be shortened to needed length ]]
    overlay_tiles = {tile definition 1, def2, def3, def4, def5, def6}, --[[
    ^ Same as `tiles`, but these textures are drawn on top of the
    ^ base tiles. You can use this to colorize only specific parts of
    ^ your texture. If the texture name is an empty string, that
    ^ overlay is not drawn. Since such tiles are drawn twice, it
    ^ is not recommended to use overlays on very common nodes. ]]
    special_tiles = {tile definition 1, Tile definition 2}, --[[
    ^ Special textures of node; used rarely
    ^ Old field name was 'special_materials'.
    ^ List can be shortened to needed length ]]
    color = ColorSpec, --[[
    ^ The node's original color will be multiplied with this color.
    ^ If the node has a palette, then this setting only has an effect
    ^ in the inventory and on the wield item. ]]
    use_texture_alpha = false,
    ^ Use texture's alpha channel.
    palette = "palette.png", --[[
    ^ The node's `param2` is used to select a pixel from the image
    ^ (pixels are arranged from left to right and from top to bottom).
    ^ The node's color will be multiplied with the selected pixel's
    ^ color. Tiles can override this behavior.
    ^ Only when `paramtype2` supports palettes. ]]
    post_effect_color = "green#0F",
    ^ Screen tint if player is inside node, see "ColorSpec".
    paramtype = "none", --[[
    ^ See "Nodes".
    ^ paramtype = "light" allows light to propagate from or through the
    ^ node with light value falling by 1 per node. This line is essential
    ^ for a light source node to spread its light. ]]
    paramtype2 = "none", -- See "Nodes"
    place_param2 = nil, -- Force value for param2 when player places node
    is_ground_content = true,
    ^ If false, the cave generator will not carve through this node.
    sunlight_propagates = false,
    ^ If true, sunlight will go infinitely through this.
    walkable = true, -- If true, objects collide with node
    pointable = true, -- If true, can be pointed at
    diggable = true, -- If false, can never be dug
    climbable = false, -- If true, can be climbed on (ladder)
    buildable_to = false, -- If true, placed nodes can replace this node
    floodable = false, --[[
    ^ If true, liquids flow into and replace this node.
    ^ Warning: making a liquid node 'floodable' will cause problems. ]]
    liquidtype = "none", -- "none"/"source"/"flowing"
    liquid_alternative_flowing = "", -- Flowing version of source liquid
    liquid_alternative_source = "", -- Source version of flowing liquid
    liquid_viscosity = 0, -- Higher viscosity = slower flow (max. 7)
    liquid_renewable = true, --[[
    ^ If true, a new liquid source can be created by placing two or more
      sources nearby. ]]
    leveled = 16, --[[
    ^ Only valid for "nodebox" drawtype with 'type = "leveled"'.
    ^ Allows defining the nodebox height without using param2.
    ^ The nodebox height is 'leveled' / 64 nodes.
    ^ The maximum value of 'leveled' is 127. ]]
    liquid_range = 8, -- number of flowing nodes around source (max. 8)
    drowning = 0,
    ^ Player will take this amount of damage if no bubbles are left.
    light_source = 0, --[[
    ^ Amount of light emitted by node.
    ^ To set the maximum (currently 14), use the value
    ^ 'minetest.LIGHT_MAX'.
    ^ A value outside the range 0 to minetest.LIGHT_MAX causes undefined
    ^ behavior.]]
    damage_per_second = 0,
    ^ If player is inside node, this damage is caused.
    node_box = {type="regular"}, -- See "Node boxes"
    connects_to = nodenames, --[[
    ^ Used for nodebox nodes with the type == "connected"
    ^ Specifies to what neighboring nodes connections will be drawn
    ^ e.g. `{"group:fence", "default:wood"}` or `"default:stone"` ]]
    connect_sides = { "top", "bottom", "front", "left", "back", "right" },
    -- [[
    ^ Tells connected nodebox nodes to connect only to these sides of this
    ^ node. ]]
    mesh = "model",
    selection_box = {type="regular"}, --[[
    ^ See "Node boxes".
    ^ If drawtype "nodebox" is used and selection_box is nil, then node_box
    ^ is used. ]]
    legacy_facedir_simple = false,
    ^ Support maps made in and before January 2012.
    legacy_wallmounted = false,
    ^ Support maps made in and before January 2012.
    waving = 0, --[[
    ^ Valid for mesh, nodebox, plantlike, allfaces_optional nodes.
    ^ 1 - wave node like plants (top of node moves, bottom is fixed)
    ^ 2 - wave node like leaves (whole node moves side-to-side)
    ^ caveats: not all models will properly wave.
    ^ plantlike drawtype nodes can only wave like plants.
    ^ allfaces_optional drawtype nodes can only wave like leaves. --]]
    sounds = {
        footstep = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
        dig = <SimpleSoundSpec>, -- "__group" = group-based sound (default)
        dug = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
        place = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
        place_failed = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
    },
    drop = "",
    ^ Name of dropped node when dug. Default is the node itself.
    ^ Alternatively:
    drop = {
        max_items = 1,  -- Maximum number of items to drop.
        items = {  -- Choose max_items randomly from this list.
            {
                items = {"foo:bar", "baz:frob"},  -- Items to drop.
                rarity = 1,  -- Probability of dropping is 1 / rarity.
                inherit_color = true, -- To inherit palette color from the
                                         node.
            },
        },
    },

    on_construct = func(pos), --[[
    ^ Node constructor; called after adding node
    ^ Can set up metadata and stuff like that
    ^ Not called for bulk node placement (i.e. schematics and VoxelManip)
    ^ default: nil ]]

    on_destruct = func(pos), --[[
    ^ Node destructor; called before removing node
    ^ Not called for bulk node placement (i.e. schematics and VoxelManip)
    ^ default: nil ]]

    after_destruct = func(pos, oldnode), --[[
    ^ Node destructor; called after removing node
    ^ Not called for bulk node placement (i.e. schematics and VoxelManip)
    ^ default: nil ]]

    on_flood = func(pos, oldnode, newnode), --[[
    ^ Called when a liquid (newnode) is about to flood oldnode, if
    ^ it has `floodable = true` in the nodedef. Not called for bulk
    ^ node placement (i.e. schematics and VoxelManip) or air nodes. If
    ^ return true the node is not flooded, but on_flood callback will
    ^ most likely be called over and over again every liquid update
    ^ interval. Default: nil.
    ^ Warning: making a liquid node 'floodable' will cause problems. ]]

    preserve_metadata = func(pos, oldnode, oldmeta, drops) --[[
    ^ Called when oldnode is about be converted to an item, but before the
    ^ node is deleted from the world or the drops are added. This is
    ^ generally the result of either the node being dug or an attached node
    ^ becoming detached.
    ^ drops is a table of ItemStacks, so any metadata to be preserved can
    ^ be added directly to one or more of the dropped items. See
    ^ "ItemStackMetaRef".
    ^ default: nil ]]

    after_place_node = func(pos, placer, itemstack, pointed_thing) --[[
    ^ Called after constructing node when node was placed using
    ^ minetest.item_place_node / minetest.place_node
    ^ If return true no item is taken from itemstack
    ^ `placer` may be any valid ObjectRef or nil
    ^ default: nil ]]

    after_dig_node = func(pos, oldnode, oldmetadata, digger), --[[
    ^ oldmetadata is in table format
    ^ Called after destructing node when node was dug using
    ^ minetest.node_dig / minetest.dig_node
    ^ default: nil ]]

    can_dig = function(pos, [player]) --[[
    ^ returns true if node can be dug, or false if not
    ^ default: nil ]]

    on_punch = func(pos, node, puncher, pointed_thing), --[[
    ^ default: minetest.node_punch
    ^ By default: Calls minetest.register_on_punchnode callbacks ]]

    on_rightclick = func(pos, node, clicker, itemstack, pointed_thing),
    --[[
    ^ default: nil
    ^ itemstack will hold clicker's wielded item
    ^ Shall return the leftover itemstack
    ^ Note: pointed_thing can be nil, if a mod calls this function
    ^ This function does not get triggered by clients <=0.4.16 if the
    ^ "formspec" node metadata field is set ]]

    on_dig = func(pos, node, digger), --[[
    ^ default: minetest.node_dig
    ^ By default: checks privileges, wears out tool and removes node ]]

    on_timer = function(pos,elapsed), --[[
    ^ default: nil
    ^ called by NodeTimers, see minetest.get_node_timer and NodeTimerRef
    ^ elapsed is the total time passed since the timer was started
    ^ return true to run the timer for another cycle with the same timeout
    ^ value. ]]

    on_receive_fields = func(pos, formname, fields, sender), --[[
    ^ fields = {name1 = value1, name2 = value2, ...}
    ^ Called when an UI form (e.g. sign text input) returns data
    ^ default: nil ]]

    allow_metadata_inventory_move = func(pos, from_list, from_index, to_list, to_index, count, player),
    --[[
    ^ Called when a player wants to move items inside the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to move ]]

    allow_metadata_inventory_put = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    --[[
    ^ Called when a player wants to put something into the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to put
    ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory ]]

    allow_metadata_inventory_take = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    --[[
    ^ Called when a player wants to take something out of the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to take
    ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory ]]

    on_metadata_inventory_move = func(pos, from_list, from_index, to_list, to_index, count, player),
    on_metadata_inventory_put = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    on_metadata_inventory_take = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    --[[
    ^ Called after the actual action has happened, according to what was
    ^ allowed.
    ^ No return value ]]

    on_blast = func(pos, intensity), --[[
    ^ intensity: 1.0 = mid range of regular TNT
    ^ If defined, called when an explosion touches the node, instead of
      removing the node ]]
}

Recipe for register_craft (shaped)

{
    output = 'default:pick_stone',
    recipe = {
        {'default:cobble', 'default:cobble', 'default:cobble'},
        {'', 'default:stick', ''},
        {'', 'default:stick', ''}, -- Also groups; e.g. 'group:crumbly'
    },
    replacements = --[[<optional list of item pairs,
                    replace one input item with another item on crafting>]]
}

Recipe for register_craft (shapeless)

{
   type = "shapeless",
   output = 'mushrooms:mushroom_stew',
   recipe = {
       "mushrooms:bowl",
       "mushrooms:mushroom_brown",
       "mushrooms:mushroom_red",
   },
   replacements = --[[<optional list of item pairs,
                   replace one input item with another item on crafting>]]

}

Recipe for register_craft (tool repair)

{
    type = "toolrepair",
    additional_wear = -0.02,
}

Recipe for register_craft (cooking)

{
    type = "cooking",
    output = "default:glass",
    recipe = "default:sand",
    cooktime = 3,
}

Recipe for register_craft (furnace fuel)

{
    type = "fuel",
    recipe = "default:leaves",
    burntime = 1,
}

Ore definition (register_ore)

See 'Ore types' section above for essential information.

{
    ore_type = "scatter",
    ore = "default:stone_with_coal",
    ore_param2 = 3,
--  ^ Facedir rotation. Default is 0 (unchanged rotation)
    wherein = "default:stone",
--  ^ a list of nodenames is supported too
    clust_scarcity = 8 * 8 * 8,
--  ^ Ore has a 1 out of clust_scarcity chance of spawning in a node
--  ^ If the desired average distance between ores is 'd', set this to
--  ^ d * d * d.
    clust_num_ores = 8,
--  ^ Number of ores in a cluster
    clust_size = 3,
--  ^ Size of the bounding box of the cluster
--  ^ In this example, there is a 3 * 3 * 3 cluster where 8 out of the 27
--  ^ nodes are coal ore.
    y_min = -31000,
    y_max = 64,
--  ^ Lower and upper limits for ore.
    flags = "",
--  ^ Attributes for this ore generation, see 'Ore attributes' section
--  ^ above.
    noise_threshold = 0.5,
--  ^ If noise is above this threshold, ore is placed. Not needed for a
--  ^ uniform distribution.
    noise_params = {
        offset = 0,
        scale = 1,
        spread = {x = 100, y = 100, z = 100},
        seed = 23,
        octaves = 3,
        persist = 0.7
    },
--  ^ NoiseParams structure describing one of the perlin noises used for
--  ^ ore distribution.
--  ^ Needed by "sheet", "puff", "blob" and "vein" ores.
--  ^ Omit from "scatter" ore for a uniform ore distribution.
--  ^ Omit from "stratum ore for a simple horizontal strata from y_min to
--  ^ y_max.
    biomes = {"desert", "rainforest"}
--  ^ List of biomes in which this decoration occurs.
--  ^ Occurs in all biomes if this is omitted, and ignored if the Mapgen
--  ^ being used does not support biomes.
--  ^ Can be a list of (or a single) biome names, IDs, or definitions.
    column_height_min = 1,
    column_height_max = 16,
    column_midpoint_factor = 0.5,
--  ^ See 'Ore types' section above.
--  ^ The above 3 parameters are only valid for "sheet" ore.
    np_puff_top = {
        offset = 4,
        scale = 2,
        spread = {x = 100, y = 100, z = 100},
        seed = 47,
        octaves = 3,
        persist = 0.7
    },
    np_puff_bottom = {
        offset = 4,
        scale = 2,
        spread = {x = 100, y = 100, z = 100},
        seed = 11,
        octaves = 3,
        persist = 0.7
    },
--  ^ See 'Ore types' section above.
--  ^ The above 2 parameters are only valid for "puff" ore.
    random_factor = 1.0,
--  ^ See 'Ore types' section above.
--  ^ Only valid for "vein" ore.
    np_stratum_thickness = {
        offset = 8,
        scale = 4,
        spread = {x = 100, y = 100, z = 100},
        seed = 17,
        octaves = 3,
        persist = 0.7
    },
    stratum_thickness = 8,
--  ^ See 'Ore types' section above.
--  ^ The above 2 parameters are only valid for "stratum" ore.
}

Biome definition (register_biome)

{
    name = "tundra",
    node_dust = "default:snow",
--  ^ Node dropped onto upper surface after all else is generated.
    node_top = "default:dirt_with_snow",
    depth_top = 1,
--  ^ Node forming surface layer of biome and thickness of this layer.
    node_filler = "default:permafrost",
    depth_filler = 3,
--  ^ Node forming lower layer of biome and thickness of this layer.
    node_stone = "default:bluestone",
--  ^ Node that replaces all stone nodes between roughly y_min and y_max.
    node_water_top = "default:ice",
    depth_water_top = 10,
--  ^ Node forming a surface layer in seawater with the defined thickness.
    node_water = "",
--  ^ Node that replaces all seawater nodes not in the defined surface
--  ^ layer.
    node_river_water = "default:ice",
--  ^ Node that replaces river water in mapgens that use
--  ^ default:river_water.
    node_riverbed = "default:gravel",
    depth_riverbed = 2,
--  ^ Node placed under river water and thickness of this layer.
    y_max = 31000,
    y_min = 1,
--  ^ Upper and lower limits for biome.
--  ^ Alternatively you can use xyz limits as shown below.
    max_pos = {x = 31000, y = 128, z = 31000},
    min_pos = {x = -31000, y = 9, z = -31000},
--  ^ xyz limits for biome, an alternative to using 'y_min' and 'y_max'.
--  ^ Biome is limited to a cuboid defined by these positions.
--  ^ Any x, y or z field left undefined defaults to -31000 in 'min_pos' or
--  ^ 31000 in 'max_pos'.
    vertical_blend = 8,
--  ^ Vertical distance in nodes above 'y_max' over which the biome will
--  ^ blend with the biome above.
--  ^ Set to 0 for no vertical blend. Defaults to 0.
    heat_point = 0,
    humidity_point = 50,
--  ^ Characteristic temperature and humidity for the biome.
--  ^ These values create 'biome points' on a voronoi diagram with heat and
--  ^ humidity as axes. The resulting voronoi cells determine the
--  ^ distribution of the biomes.
--  ^ Heat and humidity have average values of 50, vary mostly between
--  ^ 0 and 100 but can exceed these values.
}

Decoration definition (register_decoration)

{
    deco_type = "simple", -- See "Decoration types"
    place_on = "default:dirt_with_grass",
--  ^ Node (or list of nodes) that the decoration can be placed on
    sidelen = 8,
--  ^ Size of the square divisions of the mapchunk being generated.
--  ^ Determines the resolution of noise variation if used.
--  ^ If the chunk size is not evenly divisible by sidelen, sidelen is made
--  ^ equal to the chunk size.
    fill_ratio = 0.02,
--  ^ The value determines 'decorations per surface node'.
--  ^ Used only if noise_params is not specified.
    noise_params = {
        offset = 0,
        scale = 0.45,
        spread = {x = 100, y = 100, z = 100},
        seed = 354,
        octaves = 3,
        persist = 0.7,
        lacunarity = 2.0,
        flags = "absvalue"
    },
--  ^ NoiseParams structure describing the perlin noise used for decoration
--  ^ distribution.
--  ^ A noise value is calculated for each square division and determines
--  ^ 'decorations per surface node' within each division.
    biomes = {"Oceanside", "Hills", "Plains"},
--  ^ List of biomes in which this decoration occurs. Occurs in all biomes
--  ^ if this is omitted, and ignored if the Mapgen being used does not
--  ^ support biomes.
--  ^ Can be a list of (or a single) biome names, IDs, or definitions.
    y_min = -31000
    y_max = 31000
--  ^ Lower and upper limits for decoration.
--  ^ These parameters refer to the Y co-ordinate of the 'place_on' node.
    spawn_by = "default:water",
--  ^ Node (or list of nodes) that the decoration only spawns next to.
--  ^ Checks two horizontal planes of 8 neighbouring nodes (including
--  ^ diagonal neighbours), one plane level with the 'place_on' node and a
--  ^ plane one node above that.
    num_spawn_by = 1,
--  ^ Number of spawn_by nodes that must be surrounding the decoration
--  ^ position to occur.
--  ^ If absent or -1, decorations occur next to any nodes.
    flags = "liquid_surface, force_placement, all_floors, all_ceilings",
--  ^ Flags for all decoration types.
--  ^ "liquid_surface": Instead of placement on the highest solid surface
--  ^   in a mapchunk column, placement is on the highest liquid surface.
--  ^   Placement is disabled if solid nodes are found above the liquid
--  ^   surface.
--  ^ "force_placement": Nodes other than "air" and "ignore" are replaced
--  ^   by the decoration.
--  ^ "all_floors", "all_ceilings": Instead of placement on the highest
--  ^   surface in a mapchunk the decoration is placed on all floor and/or
--  ^   ceiling surfaces, for example in caves.
--  ^   Ceiling decorations act as an inversion of floor decorations so the
--  ^   effect of 'place_offset_y' is inverted.
--  ^   If a single decoration registration has both flags the floor and
--  ^   ceiling decorations will be aligned vertically and may sometimes
--  ^   meet to form a column.

    ----- Simple-type parameters
    decoration = "default:grass",
--  ^ The node name used as the decoration.
--  ^ If instead a list of strings, a randomly selected node from the list
--  ^ is placed as the decoration.
    height = 1,
--  ^ Decoration height in nodes.
--  ^ If height_max is not 0, this is the lower limit of a randomly
--  ^ selected height.
    height_max = 0,
--  ^ Upper limit of the randomly selected height.
--  ^ If absent, the parameter 'height' is used as a constant.
    param2 = 0,
--  ^ Param2 value of decoration nodes.
--  ^ If param2_max is not 0, this is the lower limit of a randomly
--  ^ selected param2.
    param2_max = 0,
--  ^ Upper limit of the randomly selected param2.
--  ^ If absent, the parameter 'param2' is used as a constant.
    place_offset_y = 0,
--  ^ Y offset of the decoration base node relative to the standard base
--  ^ node position.
--  ^ Can be positive or negative. Default is 0.
--  ^ Effect is inverted for "all_ceilings" decorations.
--  ^ Ignored by 'y_min', 'y_max' and 'spawn_by' checks, which always refer
--  ^ to the 'place_on' node.

    ----- Schematic-type parameters
    schematic = "foobar.mts",
--  ^ If schematic is a string, it is the filepath relative to the current
--  ^ working directory of the specified Minetest schematic file.
--  ^  - OR -, could be the ID of a previously registered schematic
--  ^  - OR -, could instead be a table containing two mandatory fields,
--  ^ size and data, and an optional table yslice_prob:
    schematic = {
        size = {x = 4, y = 6, z = 4},
        data = {
            {name = "default:cobble", param1 = 255, param2 = 0},
            {name = "default:dirt_with_grass", param1 = 255, param2 = 0},
            {name = "air", param1 = 255, param2 = 0},
             ...
        },
        yslice_prob = {
            {ypos = 2, prob = 128},
            {ypos = 5, prob = 64},
             ...
        },
    },
--  ^ See 'Schematic specifier' for details.
    replacements = {["oldname"] = "convert_to", ...},
    flags = "place_center_x, place_center_y, place_center_z",
--  ^ Flags for schematic decorations.  See 'Schematic attributes'.
    rotation = "90",
--  ^ Rotation can be "0", "90", "180", "270", or "random".
    place_offset_y = 0,
--  ^ If the flag 'place_center_y' is set this parameter is ignored.
--  ^ Y offset of the schematic base node layer relative to the 'place_on'
--  ^ node.
--  ^ Can be positive or negative. Default is 0.
--  ^ Effect is inverted for "all_ceilings" decorations.
--  ^ Ignored by 'y_min', 'y_max' and 'spawn_by' checks, which always refer
--  ^ to the 'place_on' node.
}

Chat command definition (register_chatcommand)

{
    params = "<name> <privilege>", -- Short parameter description
    description = "Remove privilege from player", -- Full description
    privs = {privs=true}, -- Require the "privs" privilege to run
    func = function(name, param), -- Called when command is run.
                                  -- Returns boolean success and text
                                  -- output.
}

Note that in params, use of symbols is as follows:

  • <> signifies a placeholder to be replaced when the command is used. For example, when a player name is needed: <name>
  • [] signifies param is optional and not required when the command is used. For example, if you require param1 but param2 is optional: <param1> [<param2>]
  • | signifies exclusive or. The command requires one param from the options provided. For example: <param1> | <param2>
  • () signifies grouping. For example, when param1 and param2 are both required, or only param3 is required: (<param1> <param2>) | <param3>

Detached inventory callbacks

{
    allow_move = func(inv, from_list, from_index, to_list, to_index, count, player),
--  ^ Called when a player wants to move items inside the inventory
--  ^ Return value: number of items allowed to move

    allow_put = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
--  ^ Called when a player wants to put something into the inventory
--  ^ Return value: number of items allowed to put
--  ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory

    allow_take = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
--  ^ Called when a player wants to take something out of the inventory
--  ^ Return value: number of items allowed to take
--  ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory

    on_move = func(inv, from_list, from_index, to_list, to_index, count, player),
    on_put = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
    on_take = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
--  ^ Called after the actual action has happened, according to what was
--  ^ allowed.
--  ^ No return value
}

HUD Definition (hud_add, hud_get)

{
    hud_elem_type = "image", -- see HUD element types
--  ^ type of HUD element, can be either of "image", "text", "statbar",
      "inventory".
    position = {x=0.5, y=0.5},
--  ^ Left corner position of element
    name = "<name>",
    scale = {x = 2, y = 2},
    text = "<text>",
    number = 2,
    item = 3,
--  ^ Selected item in inventory.  0 for no item selected.
    direction = 0,
--  ^ Direction: 0: left-right, 1: right-left, 2: top-bottom, 3: bottom-top
    alignment = {x=0, y=0},
--  ^ See "HUD Element Types"
    offset = {x=0, y=0},
--  ^ See "HUD Element Types"
    size = { x=100, y=100 },
--  ^ Size of element in pixels
}

Particle definition (add_particle)

{
    pos = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    velocity = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    acceleration = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
--  ^ Spawn particle at pos with velocity and acceleration
    expirationtime = 1,
--  ^ Disappears after expirationtime seconds
    size = 1,
    collisiondetection = false,
--  ^ collisiondetection: if true collides with physical objects
    collision_removal = false,
--  ^ collision_removal: if true then particle is removed when it collides,
--  ^ requires collisiondetection = true to have any effect
    vertical = false,
--  ^ vertical: if true faces player using y axis only
    texture = "image.png",
--  ^ Uses texture (string)
    playername = "singleplayer",
--  ^ optional, if specified spawns particle only on the player's client
    animation = {Tile Animation definition},
--  ^ optional, specifies how to animate the particle texture
    glow = 0
--  ^ optional, specify particle self-luminescence in darkness
}

ParticleSpawner definition (add_particlespawner)

{
    amount = 1,
    time = 1,
--  ^ If time is 0 has infinite lifespan and spawns the amount on a
--  ^ per-second basis.
    minpos = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    maxpos = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    minvel = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    maxvel = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    minacc = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    maxacc = {x=0, y=0, z=0},
    minexptime = 1,
    maxexptime = 1,
    minsize = 1,
    maxsize = 1,
--  ^ The particle's properties are random values in between the bounds:
--  ^ minpos/maxpos, minvel/maxvel (velocity),
--  ^ minacc/maxacc (acceleration), minsize/maxsize,
--  ^ minexptime/maxexptime (expirationtime).
    collisiondetection = false,
--  ^ collisiondetection: if true uses collision detection
    collision_removal = false,
--  ^ collision_removal: if true then particle is removed when it collides,
--  ^ requires collisiondetection = true to have any effect
    attached = ObjectRef,
--  ^ attached: if defined, particle positions, velocities and
--  ^ accelerations are relative to this object's position and yaw.
    vertical = false,
--  ^ vertical: if true faces player using y axis only
    texture = "image.png",
--  ^ Uses texture (string)
    playername = "singleplayer"
--  ^ Playername is optional, if specified spawns particle only on the
--  ^ player's client.
    animation = {Tile Animation definition},
--  ^ optional, specifies how to animate the particle texture
    glow = 0
--  ^ optional, specify particle self-luminescence in darkness
}

HTTPRequest definition (HTTPApiTable.fetch_async, HTTPApiTable.fetch_async)

{
    url = "http://example.org",
    timeout = 10,
--  ^ Timeout for connection in seconds. Default is 3 seconds.
    post_data = "Raw POST request data string" OR {field1 = "data1", field2 = "data2"},
--  ^ Optional, if specified a POST request with post_data is performed.
--  ^ Accepts both a string and a table. If a table is specified, encodes
--  ^ table as x-www-form-urlencoded key-value pairs.
--  ^ If post_data ist not specified, a GET request is performed instead.
    user_agent = "ExampleUserAgent",
--  ^ Optional, if specified replaces the default minetest user agent with
--  ^ given string.
    extra_headers = { "Accept-Language: en-us", "Accept-Charset: utf-8" },
--  ^ Optional, if specified adds additional headers to the HTTP request.
--  ^ You must make sure that the header strings follow HTTP specification
--  ^ ("Key: Value").
    multipart = boolean
--  ^ Optional, if true performs a multipart HTTP request.
--  ^ Default is false.
}

HTTPRequestResult definition (HTTPApiTable.fetch callback, HTTPApiTable.fetch_async_get)

{
    completed = true,
--  ^ If true, the request has finished (either succeeded, failed or timed
      out).
    succeeded = true,
--  ^ If true, the request was successful
    timeout = false,
--  ^ If true, the request timed out
    code = 200,
--  ^ HTTP status code
    data = "response"
}

Authentication handler definition

{
    get_auth = func(name),
--  ^ Get authentication data for existing player `name` (`nil` if player
      doesn't exist).
--  ^ returns following structure:
--  ^ `{password=<string>, privileges=<table>, last_login=<number or nil>}`
    create_auth = func(name, password),
--  ^ Create new auth data for player `name`
--  ^ Note that `password` is not plain-text but an arbitrary
--  ^ representation decided by the engine
    delete_auth = func(name),
--  ^ Delete auth data of player `name`, returns boolean indicating success
--  ^ (false if player nonexistant).
    set_password = func(name, password),
--  ^ Set password of player `name` to `password`
       Auth data should be created if not present
    set_privileges = func(name, privileges),
--  ^ Set privileges of player `name`
--  ^ `privileges` is in table form, auth data should be created if not
--  ^ present.
    reload = func(),
--  ^ Reload authentication data from the storage location
--  ^ Returns boolean indicating success
    record_login = func(name),
--  ^ Called when player joins, used for keeping track of last_login
    iterate = func(),
--  ^ Returns an iterator (use with `for` loops) for all player names
--  ^ currently in the auth database.
}
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